Gamma Ray Astronomy - Publications

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2012

VERITAS Observations of the Nova in V407 Cygni

E. Aliu et al., ApJ 754, 77 (2012)

We report on very high energy (E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray observations of V407 Cygni, a symbiotic binary that underwent a nova outburst producing 0.1-10 GeV gamma rays during 2010 March 10-26. Observations were made with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System during 2010 March 19-26 at relatively large zenith angles due to the position of V407 Cyg. An improved reconstruction technique for large zenith angle observations is presented and used to analyze the data. We do not detect V407 Cygni and place a differential upper limit on the flux at 1.6 TeV of 2.3 × 10–12 erg cm–2 s–1 (at the 95% confidence level). When considered jointly with data from Fermi-LAT, this result places limits on the acceleration of very high energy particles in the nova.

E. Aliu, S. Archambault, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, A. Bouvier, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, E. CollinsHughes, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, G. Decerprit, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, J. Dumm, V. V. Dwarkadas, M. Errando, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, H. Huan, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, K. Lee, G. Maier, P. Majumdar, S. McArthur, A. McCann, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, P. D Nuez, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, N. Park, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, H. Prokoph, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes,P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, J. Ruppel, D. B. Saxon, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, C. Skole, A. W. Smith, D. Staszak, I. Telezhinsky, G. Tei, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, K. Tsurusaki, J. Tyler, A. Varlotta, S. Vincent, M. Vivier, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, R. Welsing, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer

Constraints on Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields, and Dark Matter from Gamma-Ray Observations of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies with VERITAS and Fermi

T. Arlen et al., ApJ 757, 123 (2012)

Observations of radio halos and relics in galaxy clusters indicate efficient electron acceleration. Protons should likewise be accelerated and, on account of weak energy losses, can accumulate, suggesting that clusters may also be sources of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission. We report here on VHE gamma-ray observations of the Coma galaxy cluster with the VERITAS array of imaging Cerenkov telescopes, with complementing Fermi Large Area Telescope observations at GeV energies. No significant gamma-ray emission from the Coma Cluster was detected. Integral flux upper limits at the 99% confidence level were measured to be on the order of (2-5) × 10–8 photons m –2 s –1 (VERITAS, >220 GeV) and ~2 × 10–6 photons m –2 s –1 (Fermi, 1-3 GeV), respectively. We use the gamma-ray upper limits to constrain cosmic rays (CRs) and magnetic fields in Coma. Using an analytical approach, the CR-to-thermal pressure ratio is constrained to be <16% from VERITAS data and <1.7% from Fermi data (averaged within the virial radius). These upper limits are starting to constrain the CR physics in self-consistent cosmological cluster simulations and cap the maximum CR acceleration efficiency at structure formation shocks to be <50%. Alternatively, this may argue for non-negligible CR transport processes such as CR streaming and diffusion into the outer cluster regions. Assuming that the radio-emitting electrons of the Coma halo result from hadronic CR interactions, the observations imply a lower limit on the central magnetic field in Coma of ~(2-5.5) μG, depending on the radial magnetic field profile and on the gamma-ray spectral index. Since these values are below those inferred by Faraday rotation measurements in Coma (for most of the parameter space), this renders the hadronic model a very plausible explanation of the Coma radio halo. Finally, since galaxy clusters are dark matter (DM) dominated, the VERITAS upper limits have been used to place constraints on the thermally averaged product of the total self-annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of the DM particles, <σv>

T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, A. Bouvier, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, E. CollinsHughes, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, J. Dumm, A. Falcone, S. Federici,, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, J. Holder, H. Huan, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, K. Lee, A. S Madhavan, G. Maier, P. Majumdar, S. McArthur, A. McCann, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nelson, A. OFaolin de Bhrithe, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, N. Park, J. S. Perkins,, M. Pohl,, H. Prokoph, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, J. Ruppel,, D. B. Saxon, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, C. Skole, A. W. Smith, I. Telezhinsky,, G. Tei, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, K. Tsurusaki, A. Varlotta, M. Vivier, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, A. Weinstein, R. Welsing, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, C. Pfrommer, and A. Pinzke

VERITAS Deep Observations of the Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy Segue 1

E. Aliu et al., Phys. Rev. D 85 (2012), 062001.

The VERITAS array of Cherenkov telescopes has carried out a deep observational program on the nearby dwarf spheroidal galaxy Segue 1. We report on the results of nearly 48 hours of good quality selected data, taken between January 2010 and May 2011. No significant Gamma-ray emission is detected at the nominal position of Segue 1, and upper limits on the integrated flux are derived. According to recent studies, Segue 1 is the most dark matter-dominated dwarf spheroidal galaxy currently known. We derive stringent bounds on various annihilating and decaying dark matter particle models. The upper limits on the velocity-weighted annihilation cross-section are σv95% CL≲10-23 cm3 s-1, improving our limits from previous observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies by at least a factor of 2 for dark matter particle masses mχ≳300  GeV. The lower limits on the decay lifetime are at the level of τ95% CL≳1024 s. Finally, we address the interpretation of the cosmic ray lepton anomalies measured by ATIC and PAMELA in terms of dark matter annihilation, and show that the VERITAS observations of Segue 1 disfavor such a scenario.

E. Aliu, S. Archambault, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, A. Bouvier, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, J. L. Christiansen, L. Ciupik, E. CollinsHughes, M. P. Connolly, W. Cui, G. Decerprit, R. Dickherber, J. Dumm, M. Errando, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, F. Ferrer, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, H. Huan, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, K. Lee, A. S. Madhavan, G. Maier, P. Majumdar, S. McArthur, A. McCann, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, N. Park, J. S. Perkins,, M. Pohl,, H. Prokoph, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, J. Ruppel,, D. B. Saxon, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. D. entrk, C. Skole, A. W. Smith, D. Staszak, I. Telezhinsky,, G. Tei, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, K. Tsurusaki, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, M. Vivier,, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, and B. Zitzer The VERITAS collaboration

Discovery of High-Energy and Very High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from the Blazar RBS 0413

E. Aliu et al., ApJ 750 (2012), 94.

We report on the discovery of high-energy (HE; E > 0.1GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100GeV) Gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RBS 0413. VERITAS, a ground-based VHE gamma-ray observatory, detected VHE Gamma rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (σ) and a Gamma-ray flux of (1.5±0.6stat ±0.7syst)×10−8 photons m−2 s−1 (0.9% of the Crab Nebula flux) for E > 250GeV. The observed spectrum can be described with a power law having a photon index of Γ = 3.18 ± 0.68stat ± 0.30syst. Contemporaneous observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope detected HE Gamma rays from RBS 0413 with a statistical significance of more than 9 σ. We present the results from Fermi -LAT and VERITAS, including a spectral energy distribution (SED) modeling of the Gamma-ray, quasi-simultaneous X-ray (Swift -XRT), ultraviolet (Swift -UVOT) and R-band optical (MDM) data.

E. Aliu, S. Archambault, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Bttcher, A. Bouvier, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, E. CollinsHughes, M. P. Connolly, P. Coppi, W. Cui, G. Decerprit, R. Dickherber, J. Dumm, M. Errando, A. Falcone, Q. Feng, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, N. Galante, D. Gall, S. Godambe, S. Griffin, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, K. Hawkins, J. Holder, H. Huan, G. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, Y. Khassen, D. Kieda, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, K. Lee, A. S Madhavan, G. Maier, P. Majumdar, S. McArthur, A. McCann, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R. A. Ong, M. Orr, A. N. Otte, N. Palma, N. Park, J. S. Perkins,, A. Pichel, M. Pohl,, H. Prokoph, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, J. Ruppel,, D. B. Saxon, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, G. D. entrk, A. W. Smith, D. Staszak, I. Telezhinsky,, G. Tei, M. Theiling, S. Thibadeau, K. Tsurusaki, A. Varlotta, M. Vivier, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer, P. Fortin, and D. Horan

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2011

Multiwavelength Observations of the Previously Unidentified Blazar RXJ0648.7+1516

E. Aliu et al., ApJ 742 (2011), 127.

We report on the VERITAS discovery of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma ray emission above 200 GeV from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object RXJ0648.7+1516 (GBJ0648+1516), associated with 1FGL J0648.8+1516. The photon spectrum above 200 GeV is fit by a power law dN/dE = F0(E/E0)−Γ with a photon index Γ of 4.4 ± 0.8 stat ± 0.3 syst and a flux normalization F0 of (2.3±0.5 stat ±1.2 sys)×10−11 TeV−1cm−2s−1 with E0 = 300 GeV. No VHE variability is detected during VERITAS observations of RXJ0648.7+1516 between 2010 March 4 and April 15. Following the VHE discovery, the optical identification and spectroscopic redshift were obtained using the Shane 3–m Telescope at the Lick Observatory, showing the unidentified object to be a BL Lac type with a redshift of z = 0.179. Broadband multiwavelength observations contemporaneous with the VERITAS exposure period can be used to sub-classify the blazar as a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, including data from the MDM observatory, Swift -UVOT and XRT, and continuous monitoring at photon energies above 1 GeV from the Fermi -LAT high-energy gamma-ray satellite. We find that in the absence of undetected, high-energy rapid variability, the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model (SSC) overproduces the high-energy gamma-ray emission measured by the Fermi -LAT over 2.3 years. The SED can be parameterized satisfactorily with an external-Compton or lepto-hadronic model, which have two and six additional free parameters, respectively, compared to the one-zone SSC model.

Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Decerprit, G.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Hivick, B.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nelson, T.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Sembroski, G. H.; Skole, C.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Ciprini, S.; Fumagalli, M.; Kaplan, K.; Paneque, D.; Prochaska, J. X.

Detection of Pulsed Gamma Rays Above 100 GeV from the Crab Pulsar

E. Aliu et al., Science 334 (2011), 69.

We report the detection of pulsed gamma rays from the Crab pulsar at energies above 100 giga-electron volts (GeV) with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The detection cannot be explained on the basis of current pulsar models. The photon spectrum of pulsed emission between 100 mega-electron volts and 400 GeV is described by a broken power law that is statistically preferred over a power law with an exponential cutoff. It is unlikely that the observation can be explained by invoking curvature radiation as the origin of the observed gamma rays above 100 GeV. Our findings require that these gamma rays be produced more than 10 stellar radii from the neutron star.

VERITAS Collaboration; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lyutikov, M.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nuñez, P.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

VERITAS Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts Detected by Swift

V. Acciari et al., ApJ 743 (2011), 62.

We present the results of sixteen Swift-triggered GRB follow-up observations taken with the VERITAS telescope array from January, 2007 to June, 2009. The median energy threshold and response time of these observations was 260 GeV and 320 s, respectively. Observations had an average duration of 90 minutes. Each burst is analyzed independently in two modes: over the whole duration of the observations and again over a shorter time scale determined by the maximum VERITAS sensitivity to a burst with a t-1.5 time profile. This temporal model is characteristic of GRB afterglows with high-energy, long-lived emission that have been detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi satellite. No significant VHE gamma-ray emission was detected and upper limits above the VERITAS threshold energy are calculated. The VERITAS upper limits are corrected for gamma-ray extinction by the extragalactic background light (EBL) and interpreted in the context of the keV emission detected by Swift. For some bursts the VHE emission must have less power than the keV emission, placing constraints on inverse Compton models of VHE emission.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Jackson, D. J.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Newbold, M. D.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.

The 2010 gamma-ray flare and 10 years of multi-wavelengths observations of M87: Clues to the origin of the VHE emission?

A. Abramowski et al., ApJ 746 (2011), 151

Giant X-ray outbursts, with luminosities of about 1037 erg s–1, are observed roughly every five years from the nearby Be/pulsar binary 1A 0535+262. In this article, we present observations of the source with VERITAS at very high energies (VHEs; E >100 GeV) triggered by the X-ray outburst in 2009 December. The observations started shortly after the onset of the outburst and provided comprehensive coverage of the episode, as well as the 111 day binary orbit. No VHE emission is evident at any time. We also examined data from the contemporaneous observations of 1A 0535+262 with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope at high-energy photons (E > 0.1 GeV) and failed to detect the source at GeV energies. The X-ray continua measured with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the RXTE/PCA can be well described by the combination of blackbody and Comptonized emission from thermal electrons. Therefore, the gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system. This distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from those Be X-ray binaries (such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61°303) that have been detected at GeV-TeV energies. We discuss the implications of the results on theoretical models.

Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thom, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hui, C. M.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nuñez, P. D.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Barres de Almeida, U.; Cara, M.; Casadio, C.; Cheung, C. C.; McConville, W.; Davies, F.; Doi, A.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Hada, K.; Hardee, P.; Harris, D. E.; Junor, W.; Kino, M.; Lee, N. P.; Ly, C.; Madrid, J.; Massaro, F.; Mundell, C. G.; Nagai, H.; Perlman, E. S.; Steele, I. A.; Walker, R. C.; Wood, D. L.

VERITAS Observations of the Unusual Extragalactic Transient SWIFT J164449.3+573451

E. Aliu et al., ApJ 738 (2011), L30.

Giant X-ray outbursts, with luminosities of about 1037 erg s–1, are observed roughly every five years from the nearby Be/pulsar binary 1A 0535+262. In this article, we present observations of the source with VERITAS at very high energies (VHEs; E >100 GeV) triggered by the X-ray outburst in 2009 December. The observations started shortly after the onset of the outburst and provided comprehensive coverage of the episode, as well as the 111 day binary orbit. No VHE emission is evident at any time. We also examined data from the contemporaneous observations of 1A 0535+262 with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope at high-energy photons (E > 0.1 GeV) and failed to detect the source at GeV energies. The X-ray continua measured with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the RXTE/PCA can be well described by the combination of blackbody and Comptonized emission from thermal electrons. Therefore, the gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system. This distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from those Be X-ray binaries (such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61°303) that have been detected at GeV-TeV energies. We discuss the implications of the results on theoretical models.

Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huan, H.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Skole, C.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.

Multiwavelength Observations of the VHE Blazar 1ES 2344+514

V.A. Acciari et al., ApJ 738 (2011), 169.

Multiwavelength observations of the high-frequency-peaked blazar 1ES2344+514 were performed from 2007 October to 2008 January. The campaign represents the first contemporaneous data on the object at very high energy (VHE, E >100 GeV) {\gamma}-ray, X-ray, and UV energies. Observations with VERITAS in VHE Gamma-rays yield a strong detection of 20 σ with 633 excess events in a total exposure of 18.1 hours live-time. A strong VHE Gamma-ray flare on 2007 December 7 is measured at F(>300 GeV) = (6.76 ± 0.62) × 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1, corresponding to 48% of the Crab Nebula flux. Excluding this flaring episode, nightly variability at lower fluxes is observed with a time-averaged mean of F(>300 GeV) = (1.06 ± 0.09) × 10-11 ph cm-2 s-1 (7.6% of the Crab Nebula flux). The differential photon spectrum between 390 GeV and 8.3 TeV for the time-averaged observations excluding 2007 December 7 is well described by a power law with a photon index of Γ = 2.78 ± 0.09stat ± 0.15syst. Over the full period of VERITAS observations contemporaneous X-ray and UV data were taken with Swift and RXTE. The measured 2-10 keV flux ranged by a factor of ~7 during the campaign. On 2007 December 8 the highest ever observed X-ray flux from 1ES 2344+514 was measured by Swift XRT at a flux of F(2-10 keV) = (6.28 ± 0.31) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. Evidence for a correlation between the X-ray flux and VHE Gamma-ray flux on nightly time-scales is indicated with a Pearson correlation coefficient of r = 0.60 ± 0.11. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 1ES 2344+514 are presented for two distinct flux states. A one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model describes both SEDs using parameters consistent with previous SSC modeling of 1ES 2344+514 from non-contemporaneous observations.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Dickherber, R.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

TeV and Multi-wavelength Observations of Mrk421 in 2006-2008

V.A. Acciari et al., ApJ 738 (2011), 25.

We report on TeV gamma-ray observations of the blazar Mrk 421 (redshift of 0.031) with the VERITAS observatory and the Whipple 10m Cherenkov telescope. The excellent sensitivity of VERITAS allowed us to sample the TeV gamma-ray fluxes and energy spectra with unprecedented accuracy where Mrk 421 was detected in each of the pointings. A total of 47.3 hrs of VERITAS and 96 hrs of Whipple 10m data were acquired between January 2006 and June 2008. We present the results of a study of the TeV gamma-ray energy spectra as a function of time, and for different flux levels. On May 2nd and 3rd, 2008, bright TeV gamma-ray flares were detected with fluxes reaching the level of 10 Crab. The TeV gamma-ray data were complemented with radio, optical, and X-ray observations, with flux variability found in all bands except for the radio waveband. The combination of the RXTE and Swift X-ray data reveal spectral hardening with increasing flux levels, often correlated with an increase of the source activity in TeV gamma-rays. Contemporaneous spectral energy distributions were generated for 18 nights, each of which are reasonably described by a one-zone SSC model.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Araya, M.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Saxon, D. B.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Weng, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

VERITAS Observations of the TeV binary LS 1 +61 303 during 2008-2010

V.A. Acciari et al., ApJ 738 (2011), 3.

We present the results of observations of the TeV binary LS I +61 303 with the VERITAS telescope array between 2008 and 2010, at energies above 300 GeV. In the past, both ground-based gamma-ray telescopes VERITAS and MAGIC have reported detections of TeV emission near the apastron phases of the binary orbit. The observations presented here show no strong evidence for TeV emission during these orbital phases; however, during observations taken in late 2010, significant emission was detected from the source close to the phase of superior conjunction (much closer to periastron passage) at a 5.6 standard deviation (5.6 sigma) post-trials significance. In total, between October 2008 and December 2010 a total exposure of 64.5 hours was accumulated with VERITAS on LS I +61 303, resulting in an excess at the 3.3 sigma significance level for constant emission over the entire integrated dataset. The flux upper limits derived for emission during the previously reliably active TeV phases (i.e. close to apastron) are less than 5% of the Crab Nebula flux in the same energy range. This result stands in apparent contrast to previous observations by both MAGIC and VERITAS which detected the source during these phases at >10% of the Crab Nebula flux. During the two year span of observations, a large amount of X-ray data were also accrued on LS I +61 303 by the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Timing (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). We find no evidence for a correlation between emission in the X-ray and TeV regimes during 20 directly overlapping observations. We also comment on data obtained contemporaneously by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT).

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Ruppel, J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

Gamma-ray observations of the Be/pulsar binary 1A0535+262 during a giant X-ray outburst

V.A. Acciari et al., ApJ 733 (2011), 96.

Giant X-ray outbursts, with luminosities of about 1037 erg s–1, are observed roughly every five years from the nearby Be/pulsar binary 1A 0535+262. In this article, we present observations of the source with VERITAS at very high energies (VHEs; E >100 GeV) triggered by the X-ray outburst in 2009 December. The observations started shortly after the onset of the outburst and provided comprehensive coverage of the episode, as well as the 111 day binary orbit. No VHE emission is evident at any time. We also examined data from the contemporaneous observations of 1A 0535+262 with the Fermi/Large Area Telescope at high-energy photons (E > 0.1 GeV) and failed to detect the source at GeV energies. The X-ray continua measured with the Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the RXTE/PCA can be well described by the combination of blackbody and Comptonized emission from thermal electrons. Therefore, the gamma-ray and X-ray observations suggest the absence of a significant population of non-thermal particles in the system. This distinguishes 1A 0535+262 from those Be X-ray binaries (such as PSR B1259-63 and LS I +61°303) that have been detected at GeV-TeV energies. We discuss the implications of the results on theoretical models.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Araya, M.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Kertzman, M.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Prokoph, H.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Saxon, D. B.; Sembroski, G. H.; Şentürk, G. D.; Smith, A. W.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Weng, S.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

Detection of Tev Gamma Ray Emission from Tycho's Supernova Remnant

V.A. Acciari et al., ApJ 730 (2011), L20.

We report the discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) G120.1+1.4, known as Tycho's supernova remnant. Observations performed in the period 2008-2010 with the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory reveal weak emission coming from the direction of the remnant, compatible with a point source located at 00h25m27.0s, +64o10'50" (J2000). The TeV photon spectrum measured by VERITAS can be described with a power-law dN/dE = C(E/3.42 TeV) with Γ = 1.95 ± 0.51stat ±0.30sys and C = (1.55±0.43stat±0.47sys)×10-14 cm-2s-1TeV-1. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to ˜0.9% percent of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy, making it one of the weakest sources yet detected in TeV gamma rays. We present both leptonic and hadronic models which can describe the data. The lowest magnetic field allowed in these models is $\sim 80 \mu$G, which may be interpreted as evidence for magnetic field amplification.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Collins-Hughes, E.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hughes, J. P.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; Majumdar, P.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Orr, M.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Park, N. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Saxon, D. B.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Slane, P.; Smith, A. W.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Tsurusaki, K.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Vivier, M.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

Spectral Energy Distribution of Markarian 501: Quiescent State vs. Extreme Outburst

V.A. Acciari et al., ApJ 729 (2011), 2.

The very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) blazar Markarian 501 has a well-studied history of extreme spectral variability and is an excellent laboratory for studying the physical processes within the jets of active galactic nuclei. However, there are few detailed multiwavelength studies of Markarian 501 during its quiescent state, due to its low luminosity. A short-term multiwavelength study of Markarian 501 was coordinated in March 2009, focusing around a multi-day observation with the Suzaku X-ray satellite and including {\gamma}-ray data from VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope with the goal of providing a well-sampled multiwavelength baseline measurement of Markarian 501 in the quiescent state. The results of these quiescent-state observations are compared to the historically extreme outburst of April 16, 1997, with the goal of examining variability of the spectral energy distribution between the two states. The derived broadband spectral energy distribution shows the characteristic double-peaked profile. We find that the X-ray peak shifts by over two orders of magnitude in photon energy between the two flux states while the VHE peak varies little. The limited shift in the VHE peak can be explained by the transition to the Klein-Nishina regime. Synchrotron self-Compton models are matched to the data and the implied Klein-Nishina effects are explored.

Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Madhavan, A. S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Paneque, D.; Hayashida, M.

Insights into the High-energy Gamma-ray Emission of Markarian 501 from Extensive Multifrequency Observations

A.A. Abdo et al, ApJ 727 (2011) 129

We report on the Gamma-ray activity of the blazar Mrk 501 during the first 480 days of Fermi operation. We find that the average Large Area Telescope (LAT) Gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 can be well described by a single power-law function with a photon index of 1.78 ± 0.03. While we observe relatively mild flux variations with the Fermi-LAT (within less than a factor of two), we detect remarkable spectral variability where the hardest observed spectral index within the LAT energy range is 1.52 ± 0.14, and the softest one is 2.51 ± 0.20. These unexpected spectral changes do not correlate with the measured flux variations above 0.3 GeV. In this paper, we also present the first results from the 4.5 month long multifrequency campaign (2009 March 15—August 1) on Mrk 501, which included the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), Swift, RXTE, MAGIC, and VERITAS, the F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, and other collaborations and instruments which provided excellent temporal and energy coverage of the source throughout the entire campaign. The extensive radio to TeV data set from this campaign provides us with the most detailed spectral energy distribution yet collected for this source during its relatively low activity. The average spectral energy distribution of Mrk 501 is well described by the standard one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model. In the framework of this model, we find that the dominant emission region is characterized by a size lsim0.1 pc (comparable within a factor of few to the size of the partially resolved VLBA core at 15-43 GHz), and that the total jet power (~1044 erg s–1) constitutes only a small fraction (~10–3) of the Eddington luminosity. The energy distribution of the freshly accelerated radiating electrons required to fit the time-averaged data has a broken power-law form in the energy range 0.3 GeV-10 TeV, with spectral indices 2.2 and 2.7 below and above the break energy of 20 GeV. We argue that such a form is consistent with a scenario in which the bulk of the energy dissipation within the dominant emission zone of Mrk 501 is due to relativistic, proton-mediated shocks. We find that the ultrarelativistic electrons and mildly relativistic protons within the blazar zone, if comparable in number, are in approximate energy equipartition, with their energy dominating the jet magnetic field energy by about two orders of magnitude.

Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kadler, M.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Readhead, A.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Richards, J. L.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stevenson, M.; Strickman, M. S.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wehrle, A. E.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Aleksić, J.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinovi, N.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Kranich, D.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, E.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, J.; Pochon, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, T.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Struebig, J. C.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L. O.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Rovero, A. C.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. D.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Blinov, D. A.; Calcidese, P.; Chen, W. P.; Efimova, N. V.; Kimeridze, G.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionov, V. M.; Larionova, E. G.; Larionova, L. V.; Ligustri, R.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Sigua, L. A.; Troitsky, I. S.; Angelakis, E.; Capalbi, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; Cassaro, P.; de la Fuente, E.; Gurwell, M. A.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Krimm, H. A.; Leto, P.; Lister, M. L.; Maccaferri, G.; Moody, J. W.; Mori, Y.; Nestoras, I.; Orlati, A.; Pagani, C.; Pace, C.; Pearson, R., III; Perri, M.; Piner, B. G.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Sadun, A. C.; Sakamoto, T.; Tornikoski, M.; Yatsu, Y.; Zook, A.

Multi-wavelength Observations of the Flaring Gamma-ray Blazar 3C 66A in 2008 October

A.A. Abdo et al, ApJ 726 (2011) 43

The BL Lacertae object 3C 66A was detected in a flaring state by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and VERITAS in 2008 October. In addition to these gamma-ray observations, F-GAMMA, GASP-WEBT, PAIRITEL, MDM, ATOM, Swift, and Chandra provided radio to X-ray coverage. The available light curves show variability and, in particular, correlated flares are observed in the optical and Fermi-LAT gamma-ray band. The resulting spectral energy distribution can be well fitted using standard leptonic models with and without an external radiation field for inverse Compton scattering. It is found, however, that only the model with an external radiation field can accommodate the intra-night variability observed at optical wavelengths.

Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Davis, D. S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fuhrmann, L.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Dickherber, R.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Gurwell, M. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Aller, M. F.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Chen, W. P.; Berduygin, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Beltrame, P.; Benítez, E.; Buemi, C. S.; Dashti, J.; Calcidese, P.; Capezzali, D.; Carosati, D.; Da Rio, D.; Di Paola, A.; Diltz, C.; Dolci, M.; Dultzin, D.; Forné, E.; Gómez, J. L.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Halkola, A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Hovatta, T.; Hsiao, H.-Y.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Koptelova, E.; Leto, P.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Lopez, J. M.; Marscher, A. P.; Mommert, M.; Mujica, R.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Palma, N.; Pasanen, M.; Roca-Sogorb, M.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Saino, J.; Sigua, L. A.; Sillanää, A.; Sorcia, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Turchetti, R.; Umana, G.; Belloni, T.; Blake, C. H.; Bloom, J. S.; Angelakis, E.; Fumagalli, M.; Hauser, M.; Prochaska, J. X.; Riquelme, D.; Sievers, A.; Starr, D. L.; Tagliaferri, G.; Ungerechts, H.; Wagner, S.; Zensus, J. A.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; VERITAS Collaboration; GASP-WEBT Consortium

VERITAS Search for VHE Gamma-ray Emission from Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 720 (2011), 1174

Indirect dark matter searches with ground-based gamma-ray observatories provide an alternative for identifying the particle nature of dark matter that is complementary to that of direct search or accelerator production experiments. We present the results of observations of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Draco, Ursa Minor, Boötes 1, and Willman 1 conducted by the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). These galaxies are nearby dark matter dominated objects located at a typical distance of several tens of kiloparsecs for which there are good measurements of the dark matter density profile from stellar velocity measurements. Since the conventional astrophysical background of very high energy gamma rays from these objects appears to be negligible, they are good targets to search for the secondary gamma-ray photons produced by interacting or decaying dark matter particles. No significant gamma-ray flux above 200 GeV was detected from these four dwarf galaxies for a typical exposure of ~20 hr. The 95% confidence upper limits on the integral gamma-ray flux are in the range (0.4-2.2) × 10-12photonscm-2 s-1. We interpret this limiting flux in the context of pair annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and derive constraints on the thermally averaged product of the total self-annihilation cross section and the relative velocity of the WIMPs (langσvrang <~ 10-23 cm3 s-1 for m χ >~ 300 GeV c -2). This limit is obtained under conservative assumptions regarding the dark matter distribution in dwarf galaxies and is approximately 3 orders of magnitude above the generic theoretical prediction for WIMPs in the minimal supersymmetric standard model framework. However, significant uncertainty exists in the dark matter distribution as well as the neutralino cross sections which under favorable assumptions could further lower this limit.

Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2010

Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-ray Emmission from the SNR G54.1+0.3

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 719 (2010), L69

We report the discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the direction of the SNR G54.1+0.3
using the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory. The TeV signal has an overall significance of 6.8σ and
appears pointlike given the resolution of the instrument. The integral flux above 1 TeV is 2.5% of the Crab Nebula
flux and significant emission is measured between 250 GeV and 4 TeV, well described by a power-law energy
spectrum dN/dE ∼ E−Γ with a photon index Γ = 2.39 ± 0.23stat ± 0.30sys. We find no evidence of time variability
among observations spanning almost two years. Based on the location, the morphology, the measured spectrum,
the lack of variability, and a comparison with similar systems previously detected in the TeV band, the most likely
counterpart of this new VHE gamma-ray source is the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the SNR G54.1+0.3. The
measured X-ray to VHE gamma-ray luminosity ratio is the lowest among all the nebulae supposedly driven by
young rotation-powered pulsars, which could indicate a particle-dominated PWN.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Muhkerjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Slane, P.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Těsić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

VERITAS 2008-2009 Monitoring of the Variable Gamma-ray Source M 87

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 716 (2010) 819

M 87 is a nearby radio galaxy that is detected at energies ranging from radio to very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. Its proximity and its jet, misaligned from our line of sight, enable detailed morphological studies and extensive modeling at radio, optical, and X-ray energies. Flaring activity was observed at all energies, and multi-wavelength correlations would help clarify the origin of the VHE emission. In this paper, we describe a detailed temporal and spectral analysis of the VERITAS VHE gamma-ray observations of M 87 in 2008 and 2009. In the 2008 observing season, VERITAS detected an excess with a statistical significance of 7.2 standard deviations (σ) from M 87 during a joint multi-wavelength monitoring campaign conducted by three major VHE experiments along with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In 2008 February, VERITAS observed a VHE flare from M 87 occurring over a 4 day timespan. The peak nightly flux above 250 GeV was (1.14 ± 0.26) × 10–11 cm–2 s–1, which corresponded to 7.7% of the Crab Nebula flux. M 87 was marginally detected before this 4 day flare period, and was not detected afterward. Spectral analysis of the VERITAS observations showed no significant change in the photon index between the flare and pre-flare states. Shortly after the VHE flare seen by VERITAS, the Chandra X-ray Observatory detected the flux from the core of M 87 at a historical maximum, while the flux from the nearby knot HST-1 remained quiescent. Acciari et al. presented the 2008 contemporaneous VHE gamma-ray, Chandra X-ray, and Very Long Baseline Array radio observations which suggest the core as the most likely source of VHE emission, in contrast to the 2005 VHE flare that was simultaneous with an X-ray flare in the HST-1 knot. In 2009, VERITAS continued its monitoring of M 87 and marginally detected a 4.2σ excess corresponding to a flux of ~1% of the Crab Nebula. No VHE flaring activity was observed in 2009.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Rovero, A. C.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; Harris, D. E.; Massaro, F.

The Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Blazar RGB J0710+591

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 715 (2010) L49

The high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object RGB J0710+591 was observed in the very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) wave band by the VERITAS array of atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The observations, taken between 2008 December and 2009 March and totaling 22.1 hr, yield the discovery of VHE gamma rays from the source. RGB J0710+591 is detected at a statistical significance of 5.5 standard deviations (5.5σ) above the background, corresponding to an integral flux of (3.9 ± 0.8) × 10–12 cm–2 s–1 (3% of the Crab Nebula's flux) above 300 GeV. The observed spectrum can be fit by a power law from 0.31 to 4.6 TeV with a photon spectral index of 2.69 ± 0.26stat ± 0.20sys. These data are complemented by contemporaneous multiwavelength data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, the Swift X-ray Telescope, the Swift Ultra-Violet and Optical Telescope, and the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT observatory. Modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) with an equilibrium synchrotron self-Compton model yields a good statistical fit to the data. The addition of an external-Compton component to the model does not improve the fit nor brings the system closer to equipartition. The combined Fermi and VERITAS data constrain the properties of the high-energy emission component of the source over 4 orders of magnitude and give measurements of the rising and falling sections of the SED.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lamerato, A.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Petry, D.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Roustazadeh, P.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Tešić, G.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ripken, J.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

Observations of the Shell-type Supernova Remnant Cassiopeia A at TeV Energies with VERITAS

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 714 (2010) 163

We report on observations of very high energy Gamma rays from the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) Cassiopeia A with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System stereoscopic array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes in Arizona. The total exposure time for these observations is 22 hr, accumulated between September and November of 2007. The Gamma-ray source associated with the SNR Cassiopeia A was detected above 200 GeV with a statistical significance of 8.3σ. The estimated integral flux for this Gamma-ray source is about 3% of the Crab-Nebula flux. The photon spectrum is compatible with a power law dN/dE vprop E –Gamma with an index Γ = 2.61 ± 0.24stat ± 0.2sys. The data are consistent with a point-like source. We provide a detailed description of the analysis results and discuss physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed Gamma-ray emission.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Ergin, T.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Huang, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Smith, B. R.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; VERITAS Collaboration

Discovery of Variability in the Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Emission of 1ES 1218+304 with VERITAS

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 709 (2010) 163

We present results from an intensive VERITAS monitoring campaign of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac (HBL) object 1ES 1218+304 in 2008/2009. Although 1ES 1218+304 was detected previously by MAGIC and VERITAS at a persistent level of ~6% of the Crab Nebula flux, the new VERITAS data reveal a prominent flare reaching ~20% of the Crab. While VHE flares are quite common in many nearby blazars, the case of 1ES 1218+304 (redshift z = 0.182) is particularly interesting since it belongs to a group of blazars that exhibit unusually hard very high energy (VHE) spectra considering their redshifts. When correcting the measured spectra for absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL), 1ES 1218+304 and a number of other blazars are found to have differential photon indices Gamma less than 1.5. The difficulty in modeling these hard spectral energy distributions in blazar jets has led to a range of theoretical gamma-ray emission scenarios, one of which is strongly constrained by these new VERITAS observations. We consider the implications of the observed light curve of 1ES 1218+304, which shows day-scale flux variations, for shock acceleration scenarios in relativistic jets, and in particular for the viability of kiloparsec-scale jet emission scenarios.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Böttcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Guenette, R.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Hanna, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Moriarty, P.; Nagai, T.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; VERITAS Collaboration

A connection between star formation activity and cosmic rays in the starburst galaxy M82

V. A. Acciari et al, Nature 462 (2010) 770

Although Galactic cosmic rays (protons and nuclei) are widely believed to be mainly accelerated by the winds and supernovae of massive stars, definitive evidence of this origin remains elusive nearly a century after their discovery. The active regions of starburst galaxies have exceptionally high rates of star formation, and their large size-more than 50 times the diameter of similar Galactic regions-uniquely enables reliable calorimetric measurements of their potentially high cosmic-ray density. The cosmic rays produced in the formation, life and death of massive stars in these regions are expected to produce diffuse γ-ray emission through interactions with interstellar gas and radiation. M82, the prototype small starburst galaxy, is predicted to be the brightest starburst galaxy in terms of γ-ray emission. Here we report the detection of >700-GeV γ-rays from M82. From these data we determine a cosmic-ray density of 250 eV cm-3 in the starburst core, which is about 500 times the average Galactic density. This links cosmic-ray acceleration to star formation activity, and suggests that supernovae and massive-star winds are the dominant accelerators.

VERITAS Collaboration; Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lebohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nagai, T.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on Its z

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 708 (2010) 100

We report the first detection of very high energy83Gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV. (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140 GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140 GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 ± 0.5stat ± 0.3syst and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 ± 0.9stat ± 0.5syst) × 10–11 TeV–1 cm–2 s–1, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainties, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (from 2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high-energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Nagai, T.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Senturk, G. Demet; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hanabata, Y.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocian, M. L.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Fermi LAT Collaboration; Barber, S. D.; Terndrup, D. M.

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2009

Multiwavelength Observations of a TeV-Flare from W Comae

V. A. Acciari et al, ApJ 707 (2009) 612

We report results from an intensive multiwavelength campaign on the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object W Com (z=0.102) during a strong outburst of very high energy gamma-ray emission in June 2008. The very high energy gamma-ray signal was detected by VERITAS on 2008 June 7-8 with a flux F(> 200 GeV) = (5.7 ± 0.6) × 10−11 cm−2s−1, about three times brighter than during the discovery of gamma-ray emission from W Com by VERITAS in 2008 March. The initial detection of this flare by VERITAS at energies above 200 GeV was followed by observations in high energy gamma-rays (AGILE, E  ≥ 100 MeV), and X-rays (Swift and XMM-Newton), and at UV, and ground-based optical and radio monitoring through the GASP-WEBT consortium and other observatories. Here we describe the multiwavelength data and derive the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source from contemporaneous data taken throughout the flare.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Boltuch, D.; Buckley, J. H.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Le Bohec, S.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Theiling, M.; Thibadeau, S.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Pian, E.; Vercellone, S.; Donnarumma, I.; D'Ammando, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Chen, A. W.; Giuliani, A.; Longo, F.; Pacciani, L.; Pucella, G.; Vittorini, V.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Fiorini, M.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lipari, P.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rubini, A.; Sabatini, S.; Soffitta, P.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Salotti, L.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Efimova, N. V.; Larionov, V. M.; Leto, P.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Pasanen, M.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Tetradze, S. D.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Kotiranta, M.; Cucchiara, A.; Romano, P.; Nesci, R.; Pursimo, T.; Heidt, J.; Benitez, E.; Hiriart, D.; Nilsson, K.; Berdyugin, A.; Mujica, R.; Dultzin, D.; Lopez, J. M.; Mommert, M.; Sorcia, M.; de la Calle Perez, I.

VERITAS Upper Limit on the VHE Emission from the Radio Galaxy NGC 1275

V. A. Acciari et al

The recent detection by the Fermi Gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy Gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE Gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Galante, N.; Gall, D.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G. H.; Godambe, S.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Le Bohec, S.; Maier, G.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.; Kataoka, J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cheung, C. C.; Lott, B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tosti, G.

Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 During Outburst

V. A. Acciari et al

We report on the results of two coordinated multiwavelength campaigns that focused on the blazar Markarian 421 during its 2006 and 2008 outbursts. These campaigns obtained UV and X-ray data using the XMM-Newton satellite, while the gamma-ray data were obtained utilizing three imaging atmospheric Cerenkov telescopes, the Whipple 10 m telescope and VERITAS, both based in Arizona, as well as the MAGIC telescope, based on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The coordinated effort between the gamma-ray groups allowed for truly simultaneous data in UV/X-ray/gamma-ray wavelengths during a significant portion of the XMM-Newton observations. This simultaneous coverage allowed for a reliable search for correlations between UV, X-ray, and gamma-ray variability over the course of the observations. Investigations of spectral hysteresis and modeling of the spectral energy distributions are also presented.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Aune, T.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Cannon, A.; Celik, O.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. D.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Finnegan, G.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McCann, A.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pichel, A.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; de la Calle Perez, I.; Ibarra, A.; Anderhub, H.; Rodriguez, P.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britvitch, I.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Curtef, V.; Dazzi, F.; DeAngelis, A.; DeCea del Pozo, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Delos Reyes, R.; DeLotto, B.; DeMaria, M.; DeSabata, F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sidro, N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tluczykont, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; MAGIC Collaboration

Detection of Extended VHE Gamma Ray Emission from G106.3+2.7 with VERITAS

V. A. Acciari et al

We report the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from supernova remnant (SNR) G106.3+2.7. Observations performed in 2008 with the VERITAS atmospheric Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope resolve extended emission overlapping the elongated radio SNR. The 7.3σ (pre-trials) detection has a full angular extent of roughly 0fdg6 by 0fdg4. Most notably, the centroid of the VHE emission is centered near the peak of the coincident 12CO (J = 1-0) emission, 0fdg4 away from the pulsar PSR J2229+6114, situated at the northern end of the SNR. Evidently the current-epoch particles from the pulsar wind nebula are not participating in the gamma-ray production. The VHE energy spectrum measured with VERITAS is well characterized by a power law dN/dE = N 0(E/3 TeV)–Γ with a differential index of Γ = 2.29 ± 0.33stat ± 0.30sys and a flux of N 0 = (1.15 ± 0.27stat ± 0.35sys) × 10–13 cm–2 s–1 TeV–1. The integral flux above 1 TeV corresponds to ~5 percent of the steady Crab Nebula emission above the same energy. We describe the observations and analysis of the object and briefly discuss the implications of the detection in a multiwavelength context.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Boltuch, D.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Dickherber, R.; Ergin, T.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Vincent, S.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; Weisgarber, T.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

Multiwavelength Observations of LS I +61° 303 with Veritas, Swift, and RXTE

V. A. Acciari et al

We present results from a long-term monitoring campaign on the TeV binary LSI +61° 303 with VERITAS at energies above 500 GeV, and in the 2-10 keV hard X-ray bands with RXTE and Swift, sampling nine 26.5 day orbital cycles between 2006 September and 2008 February. The binary was observed by VERITAS to be variable, with all integrated observations resulting in a detection at the 8.8σ (2006/2007) and 7.3σ (2007/2008) significance level for emission above 500 GeV. The source was detected during active periods with flux values ranging from 5% to 20% of the Crab Nebula, varying over the course of a single orbital cycle. Additionally, the observations conducted in the 2007-2008 observing season show marginal evidence (at the 3.6σ significance level) for TeV emission outside the apastron passage of the compact object around the Be star. Contemporaneous hard X-ray observations with RXTE and Swift show large variability with flux values typically varying between 0.5 and 3.0 ×10–11 erg cm–2 s–1 over a single orbital cycle. The contemporaneous X-ray and TeV data are examined and it is shown that the TeV sampling is not dense enough to detect a correlation between the two bands.

Acciari, V. A.; Aliu, E.; Arlen, T.; Bautista, M.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Böttcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bugaev, V.; Butt, Y.; Butt, Y.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Chow, Y. C.; Ciupik, L.; Cogan, P.; Colin, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M.; Dickherber, R.; Ergin, T.; Falcone, A.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gall, D.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Guenette, R.; Gyuk, G.; Hanna, D.; Hays, E.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Hui, C. M.; Humensky, T. B.; Kaaret, P.; Karlsson, N.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Konopelko, A.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Maier, G.; McCann, A.; McCutcheon, M.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nagai, T.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Pandel, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Perkins, J. S.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E.; Joachim Rose, H.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Smith, A. W.; Steele, D.; Stroh, M.; Swordy, S.; Theiling, M.; Toner, J. A.; Varlotta, A.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wagner, R. G.; Wakely, S. P.; Ward, J. E.; Weekes, T. C.; Weinstein, A.; White, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Wissel, S.; Wood, M.; Zitzer, B.

 

Radio Imaging of the Very-High-Energy γ-Ray Emission Region in the Central Engine of a Radio Galaxy

The VERITAS Collaboration, the VLBA 43GHz M87 Monitoring Team, the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, the MAGIC Collaboration, Science 24 July 2009: 444-448

The accretion of matter onto a massive black hole is believed to feed the relativistic plasma jets found in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). Although some AGN accelerate particles to energies exceeding 1012 electron volts and are bright sources of very-high-energy (VHE) γ-ray emission, it is not yet known where the VHE emission originates. Here we report on radio and VHE observations of the radio galaxy Messier 87, revealing a period of extremely strong VHE γ-ray flares accompanied by a strong increase of the radio flux from its nucleus. These results imply that charged particles are accelerated to very high energies in the immediate vicinity of the black hole.

The VERITAS Collaboration, the VLBA 43GHz M87 Monitoring Team, the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, the MAGIC Collaboration

Multiwavelength Observations of LS I +61 303 with Veritas, Swift, and RXTE

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ 700 No 2 (2009 August 1) 1034-1041

We present results from a long-term monitoring campaign on the TeV binary LSI +61 303 with VERITAS at energies above 500 GeV, and in the 2-10 keV hard X-ray bands with RXTE and Swift, sampling nine 26.5 day orbital cycles between September 2006 and February 2008. The binary was observed by VERITAS to be variable, with all integrated observations resulting in a detection at the 8.8 sigma (2006/2007) and 7.3 sigma (2007/2008) significance level for emission above 500 GeV. The source was detected during active periods with flux values ranging from 5 to 20% of the Crab Nebula, varying over the course of a single orbital cycle. Additionally, the observations conducted in the 2007-2008 observing season show marginal evidence (at the 3.6 sigma significance level) for TeV emission outside of the apastron passage of the compact object around the Be star. Contemporaneous hard X-ray observations with RXTE and Swift show large variability with flux values typically varying between 0.5 and 3.0*10^-11 ergs cm^-2 s^-1 over a single orbital cycle. The contemporaneous X-ray and TeV data are examined and it is shown that the TeV sampling is not dense enough to detect a correlation between the two bands.

V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, M. Bautista, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Bottcher, S. M. Bradbury, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, Y. Butt, K. Byrum0, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M. Daniel, R. Dickherber, T. Ergin, A. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, D. Gall, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, M. Stroh, S. Swordy, M. Theiling, J. A. Toner, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinsteiny, R. J. White, D. A. Williams, S. Wissely, M. Woody, B. Zitzer

Evidence for Long-Term Gamma-Ray and X-Ray Variability from the Unidentified TeV Source HESS J0632+057

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ 698 No 2 (2009 June 20) L94-L97

HESS J0632+057 is one of only two unidentified very-high-energy gamma-ray sources which appear to be point-like within experimental resolution. It is possibly associated with the massive Be star MWC 148 and has been suggested to resemble known TeV binary systems like LS I +61 303 or LS 5039. HESS J0632+057 was observed by VERITAS for 31 hours in 2006, 2008 and 2009. During these observations, no significant signal in gamma rays with energies above 1 TeV was detected from the direction of HESS J0632+057. A flux upper limit corresponding to 1.1% of the flux of the Crab Nebula has been derived from the VERITAS data. The non-detection by VERITAS excludes with a probability of 99.993% that HESS J0632+057 is a steady gamma-ray emitter. Contemporaneous X-ray observations with Swift XRT reveal a factor of 1.8+-0.4 higher flux in the 1-10 keV range than earlier X-ray observations of HESS J0632+057. The variability in the gamma-ray and X-ray fluxes supports interpretation of the ob ject as a gamma-ray emitting binary.

V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, D. Boltuch, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, T. Ergin, A. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, K.Gibbs, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, D. Petry, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, M. Theiling, J. A. Toner, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood

Observation of Extended Very High Energy Emission from the Supernova Remnant IC 443 with VERITAS

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ 698 No 2 (2009 June 20) L133-L137

We present evidence that the very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with the supernova remnant IC 443 is extended. IC 443 contains one of the best-studied sites of supernova remnant/molecular cloud interaction and the pulsar wind nebula CXOU J061705.3+222127, both of which are important targets for VHE observations. VERITAS observed IC 443 for 37.9 hours during 2007 and detected emission above 300 GeV with an excess of 247 events, resulting in a significance of 8.3 standard deviations (sigma) before trials and 7.5 sigma after trials in a point-source search. The emission is centered at 06 16 51 +22 30 11 (J2000) +- 0.03_stat +- 0.08_sys degrees, with an intrinsic extension of 0.16 +- 0.03_stat +- 0.04_sys degrees. The VHE spectrum is well fit by a power law (dN/dE = N_0 * (E/TeV)^-Gamma) with a photon index of 2.99 +- 0.38_stat +- 0.3_sys and an integral flux above 300 GeV of (4.63 +- 0.90_stat +- 0.93_sys) * 10^-12 cm^-2 s^-1. These results are discussed in the context of existing models for gamma-ray production in IC 443.

V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, T. Aune, M. Bautista, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, V. V. Dwarkadas, T. Ergin, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, D. Gall, K. Gibbs, G. H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, M. Theiling, J. A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, S. Vincent, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, T. Weisgarber, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer

VERITAS Observations of a Very High Energy Gamma-ray Flare from the Blazar 3C 66A

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJL, 693, L104, 2009a

The intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacertae (IBL) object 3C 66A is detected during 2007 - 2008 in VHE (very high energy: E > 100 GeV) gamma-rays with the VERITAS stereoscopic array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. An excess of 1791 events is detected, corresponding to a significance of 21.2 standard deviations (sigma), in these observations (32.8 hours live time). The observed integral flux above 200 GeV is 6% of the Crab Nebula's flux and shows evidence for variability on the time-scale of days. The measured energy spectrum is characterized by a soft power law with photon index Gamma = 4.1 +- 0.4_stat +- 0.6_sys. The radio galaxy 3C 66B is excluded as a possible source of the VHE emission.

V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Bottcher, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, R. Dickherber, T. Ergin, A. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, D. Gall, K. Gibbs, G. H. Gillanders, S. Godambe, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, D. Petry, F. Pizlo, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, M. Theiling, J. A. Toner, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer

Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma-ray Radiation from the BL Lac 1ES 0806+524

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJL, 690, L126, 2009b

The high-frequency-peaked BL-Lacertae object \objectname{1ES 0806+524}, at redshift z=0.138, was observed in the very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray regime by VERITAS between November 2006 and April 2008. These data encompass the two-, and three-telescope commissioning phases, as well as observations with the full four-telescope array. \objectname{1ES 0806+524} is detected with a statistical significance of 6.3 standard deviations from 245 excess events. Little or no measurable variability on monthly time scales is found. The photon spectrum for the period November 2007 to April 2008 can be characterized by a power law with photon index $3.6 \pm 1.0_{\mathrm{stat}} \pm 0.3_{\mathrm{sys}}$ between $\sim$300 GeV and $\sim$700 GeV. The integral flux above 300 GeV is $(2.2\pm0.5_{\mathrm{stat}}\pm0.4_{\mathrm{sys}})\times10^{-12}\:\mathrm{cm}^{2}\:\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ which corresponds to 1.8% of the Crab Nebula flux. Non contemporaneous multiwavelength observations are combined with the VHE data to produce a broadband spectral energy distribution that can be reasonably described using a synchrotron-self Compton model.

V. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, M. Bautista, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Böttcher, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, T. Ergin, A. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, P. Fortin, L. Fortson, A. Furniss, D. Gall, K. Gibbs, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, D. Petry, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, M. Theiling, J. A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, A. Varlotta, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, R. J. White, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer

Cosmic-ray electron signatures of dark matter

Pohl, M., Phys. Rev. D 79, 041301, 2009

There is evidence for an excess in cosmic-ray electrons at about 500 GeV energy, that may be related to dark-matter annihilation. I have calculated the expected electron contributions from a pulsar and from Kaluza-Klein dark matter, based on a realistic treatment of the electron propagation in the Galaxy. Both pulsars and dark-matter clumps are quasi-pointlike and few, and therefore their electron contributions at Earth generally have spectra that deviate from the average spectrum one would calculate for a smooth source distribution. I find that pulsars younger than about 10^5 years naturally cause a narrow peak at a few hundred GeV in the locally observed electron spectrum, similar to that observed. On the other hand, for a density n_c = 10 /kpc^3 of dark-matter clumps the sharp cut-off in the contribution from Kaluza-Klein particles is sometimes more pronounced, but often smoothed out and indistinguishable from a pulsar source, and therefore the spectral shape of the electron excess is insufficient to discriminate a dark-matter origin from more conventional astrophysical explanations. The amplitude of variations in the spectral feature caused by dark matter predominantly depends on the density of dark-matter clumps, which is not well known.

Martin Pohl

VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304

Acciari, V., et al. (The VERITAS collaboration), ApJ 695, 1370, 2009c

The VERITAS collaboration reports the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1218+304 located at a redshift of z=0.182. A gamma-ray signal was detected with a statistical significance of 10.4 standard deviations (10.4 sigma) for the observations taken during the first three months of 2007, confirming the discovery of this object made by the MAGIC collaboration. The photon spectrum between ~160 GeV and ~1.8 TeV is well described by a power law with an index of Gamma = 3.08 +/- 0.34_stat +/- 0.2_sys. The integral flux is Phi(E > 200 GeV) = (12.2 +/- 2.6) X 10^-12 cm^-2 s^-1, which corresponds to ~6% of that of the Crab Nebula. The light curve does not show any evidence for VHE flux variability. Using lower limits on the density of the extragalactic background light in the near to mid-infrared we are able to limit the range of intrinsic energy spectra for 1ES 1218+304. We show that the intrinsic photon spectrum has an index that is harder than Gamma = 2.32 +/- 0.37_stat. When including constraints from the spectra of 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 0229+200, the spectrum of 1ES 1218+304 is likely to be harder than Gamma = 1.86 +/- 0.37_stat.

V.A. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, K.L. Byrum, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, Y.C.K. Chow, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M.K. Daniel, T. Ergin, A.D. Falcone, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, P. Fortin, L.F. Fortson, A. Furniss, G.H. Gillanders, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, C.M. Hui, T.B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D.B. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, J. Niemiec, R.A. Ong, D. Pandel, J.S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L.C. Reyes, P.T. Reynolds, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, A.W. Smith, D. Steele, S.P. Swordy, J.A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V.V. Vassiliev, R. Wagner, S.P. Wakely, J.E. Ward, T.C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, R.J. White, D.A. Williams, S.A. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer

Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 in 2005 - 2006

Horan, D., Acciari, V., Bradbury, S.M., et al., ApJ 695, 596, 2009

Since September 2005, the Whipple 10m Gamma-ray Telescope has been operated primarily as a blazar monitor. The five Northern Hemisphere blazars that have already been detected at the Whipple Observatory, Markarian 421, H1426+428, Markarian 501, 1ES 1959+650 and 1ES 2344+514, are monitored routinely each night that they are visible. We report on the Markarian 421 observations taken from November 2005 to June 2006 in the gamma-ray, X-ray, optical and radio bands. During this time, Markarian 421 was found to be variable at all wavelengths probed. Both the variability and the correlations among different energy regimes are studied in detail here. A tentative correlation, with large spread, was measured between the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, while no clear correlation was evident among the other energy bands. In addition to this, the well-sampled spectral energy distribution of Markarian 421 (1101+384) is presented for three different activity levels. The observations of the other blazar targets will be reported separately.

D. Horan, V. A. Acciari, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, K. L. Byrum, A. Cannon, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, Y. C. K. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, A. D. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, L. F. Fortson, D. Gall, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, M. Kertzman, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F., M. J. Lang, K. Lee, P. Moriarty, T. Nagai, J. Niemiec, R. A. Ong, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, P. T. Reynolds, H. J. Rose, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, J. A. Toner, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, R. J. White, D. A. Williams, M. D. Wood, B. Zitzer, H. D. Aller, M. F. Aller, M. Baker, D. Barnaby, M. T. Carini, P. Charlot, J. P. Dumm, N. E. Fields, T. Hovatta, B. Jordan, Y. A. Kovalev, Y. Y. Kovalev, H. A. Krimm, O. M. Kurtanidze, A. Lahteenmaki, J. F. Le Campion, J. Maune, T. Montaruli, A. C. Sadun, S. Smith, M. Tornikoski, M. Turunen, R. Walters

The June 2008 flare of Markarian 421 from optical to TeV energies

Donnarumma, I., et al. (including the VERITAS collaboration), ApJL 691, L13, 2009

We present optical, X-ray, high energy ($\lessapprox 30$ GeV) and very high energy ($\gtrapprox 100$ GeV; VHE) observations of the high-frequency peaked blazar Mrk 421 taken between 2008 May 24 and June 23. A high energy $\gamma$-ray signal was detected by AGILE with \sqrt{TS}=4.5 on June 9--15, with $F(E>100 \mathrm{MeV})= 42^{+14}_{-12}\times 10^{-8}$ photons cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$. This flaring state is brighter than the average flux observed by EGRET by a factor of $\sim$3, but still consistent with the highest EGRET flux. In hard X-rays (20-60 keV) SuperAGILE resolved a 5-day flare (June 9-15) peaking at $\sim$ 55 mCrab. SuperAGILE, RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT data show a correlated flaring structure between soft and hard X-rays. Hints of the same flaring behavior are also detected in the simultaneous optical data provided by the GASP-WEBT. A Swift/XRT observation near the flaring maximum revealed the highest 2-10 keV flux ever observed from this source, of 2.6 $\times 10^{-9}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ (i.e. > 100 mCrab). A peak synchrotron energy of $\sim$3 keV was derived, higher than typical values of $\sim$0.5-1 keV. VHE observations with MAGIC and VERITAS on June 6-8 show the flux peaking in a bright state, well correlated with the X-rays. This extraordinary set of simultaneous data, covering a twelve-decade spectral range, allowed for a deep analysis of the spectral energy distribution as well as of correlated light curves. The $\gamma$-ray flare can be interpreted within the framework of the synchrotron self-Compton model in terms of a rapid acceleration of leptons in the jet.

I. Donnarumma1, V. Vittorini, S. Vercellone, E. Del Monte, M. Feroci, F. D’Ammando, L. Pacciani, A. W. Chen, M. Tavani, A. Bulgarelli, A. Giuliani, F. Longo, G. Pucella, A. Argan, G. Barbiellini, F. Boffelli, P. Caraveo, P. W. Cattaneo, V. Cocco, E. Costa, G. De Paris, G. Di Cocco, Y. Evangelista, M. Fiorini, T. Froysland, M. Frutti, F. Fuschino, M. Galli, F. Gianotti, C. Labanti, I. Lapshov, F. Lazzarotto, P. Lipari, M. Marisaldi, M. Mastropietro, S. Mereghetti, E. Morelli, A. Morselli, A. Pellizzoni, F. Perotti, P. Picozza, G. Porrovecchio, M. Prest, M. Rapisarda, A. Rappoldi, A. Rubini, P. Soffitta, M. Trifoglio, A. Trois, E. Vallazza, A. Zambra, D. Zanello, C. Pittori, P. Santolamazza, F. Verrecchia, P. Giommi, S. Colafrancesco, L. Salotti, (The AGILE Team), M. Villata, C. M. Raiteri, W. P. Chen, N. V. Efimova, B. Jordan, T. S. Konstantinova, E. Koptelova, O. M. Kurtanidze, V. M. Larionov, J. A. Ros, A. C. Sadun, (The GASP-WEBT Team), H. Anderhub, L. A. Antonelli, P. Antoranz, M. Backes, C. Baixeras, S. Balestra, J. A. Barrio, H. Bartko, D. Bastieri, J. Becerra Gonzalez, J. K. Becker, W. Bednarek, K. Berger, E. Bernardini, A. Biland, R. K. Bock, G. Bonnoli, P. Bordas, D. Borla Tridon, V. Bosch-Ramon, T. Bretz, I. Britvitch, M. Camara, E. Carmona, A. Chilingarian, S. Commichau, J. L. Contreras, J. Cortina, M. T. Costado, S. Covino, V. Curtef, F. Dazzi, A. De Angelis, E. De Cea del Pozo, R. de los Reyes, B. De Lotto, M. De Maria, F. De Sabata, C. Delgado Mendez, A. Dominguez, D. Dorner, M. Doro, D. Elsaesser, M. Errando, D. Ferenc, E. Fernandez, R. Firpo, M. V. Fonseca, L. Font, N. Galante, R. J. Garcıa Lopez, M. Garczarczyk, M. Gaug, F. Goebel, D. Hadasch, M. Hayashida, A. Herrero, D. Hohne-Monch, J. Hose, C. C. Hsu, S. Huber, T. Jogler, D. Kranich, A. La Barbera, A. Laille, E. Leonardo, E. Lindfors, S. Lombardi, M. Lopez, E. Lorenz, P. Majumdar, G. Maneva, N. Mankuzhiyil, K. Mannheim, L. Maraschi, M. Mariotti, M. Martinez, D. Mazin, M. Meucci, M. Meyer, J. M. Miranda, R. Mirzoyan, J. Moldon, M. Moles, A. Moralejo, D. Nieto, K. Nilsson, J. Ninkovic, I. Oya, R. Paoletti, J. M. Paredes, M. Pasanen, D. Pascoli, F. Pauss, R. G. Pegna, M. A. Perez-Torres, M. Persic, L. Peruzzo, F. Prada, E. Prandini, N. Puchades, A. Raymers, W. Rhode, M. Ribo, J. Rico, M. Rissi, A. Robert, S. Rugamer, A. Saggion, T. Y. Saito, M. Salvati, M. Sanchez-Conde, P. Sartori, K. Satalecka, V. Scalzotto, V. Scapin, T. Schweizer, M. Shayduk, K. Shinozaki, S. N. Shore, N. Sidro, A. Sierpowska-Bartosik, A. Sillanpaa, J. Sitarek, D. Sobczynska, F. Spanier, A. Stamerra, L. S. Stark, L. Takalo, F. Tavecchio, P. Temnikov, D. Tescaro, M. Teshima, M. Tluczykont, D. F. Torres, N. Turini, H. Vankov, A. Venturini, V. Vitale, R. M. Wagner, W. Wittek, V. Zabalza, F. Zandanel, R. Zanin, J. Zapatero, (The MAGIC Collaboration), V. Acciari, E. Aliu, T. Arlen, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, K. Byrum, A. Cannon, A. Cesarini, Y. C. Chow, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, R. Dickherber, C. Duke, T. Ergin, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, P. Fortin, A. Furniss, D. Gall, G. H. Gillanders, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, J. Grube, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. Brian Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, A. Milovanovic, P. Moriarty, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, A. N. Otte, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, A. Pichel, M. Pohl, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, M. Theiling, J. A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, A. Varlotta, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, D. A. Williams, S. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer, and (The VERITAS Collaboration)

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2008

A search for dark matter annihilation with the Whipple 10-m telescope

Wood, M., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ 678, 594, 2008

We present observations of the dwarf galaxies Draco and Ursa Minor, the local group galaxies M32 and M33, and the globular cluster M15 conducted with the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope to search for the gamma-ray signature of self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) which may constitute astrophysical dark matter (DM). We review the motivations for selecting these sources based on their unique astrophysical environments and report the results of the data analysis which produced upper limits on excess rate of gamma rays for each source. We consider models for the DM distribution in each source based on the available observational constraints and discuss possible scenarios for the enhancement of the gamma-ray luminosity. Limits on the thermally averaged product of the total self-annihilation cross section and velocity of the WIMP, <\sigma v>, are derived using conservative estimates for the magnitude of the astrophysical contribution to the gamma-ray flux. Although these limits do not constrain predictions from the currently favored theoretical models of supersymmetry (SUSY), future observations with VERITAS will probe a larger region of the WIMP parameter phase space, <\sigma v> and WIMP particle mass (m_\chi).

M. Wood, G. Blaylock, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, K. L. Byrum, Y. C. K. Chow, W. Cui, I. de la Calle Perez, A. D. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, J. Grube, J. Hall, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. Horan, T. B. Humensky, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, H. J. Rose, G. H. Sembroski, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein

VERITAS Observations of the gamma-Ray Binary LS I +61 303

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ, 679, 1427, 2008a

LS I +61 303 is one of only a few high-mass X-ray binaries currently detected at high significance in very high energy gamma-rays. The system was observed over several orbital cycles (between September 2006 and February 2007) with the VERITAS array of imaging air-Cherenkov telescopes. A signal of gamma-rays with energies above 300 GeV is found with a statistical significance of 8.4 standard deviations. The detected flux is measured to be strongly variable; the maximum flux is found during most orbital cycles at apastron. The energy spectrum for the period of maximum emission can be characterized by a power law with a photon index of Gamma=2.40+-0.16_stat+-0.2_sys and a flux above 300 GeV corresponding to 15-20% of the flux from the Crab Nebula.

V.A. Acciari, M. Beilicke, G. Blaylock, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, K.L. Byrum, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, Y.C.K. Chow, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M.K. Daniel, C. Duke, T. Ergin, A.D. Falcone, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, P. Fortin, L.F. Fortson, D. Gall, K. Gibbs, G.H. Gillanders, J. Grube R. Guenette, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, S.B. Hughes, C.M. Hui, T.B. Humensky, P. Kaaret, D.B. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, K. Lee, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, R.A. Ong, D. Pandel, J.S. Perkins, F. Pizlo, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P.T. Reynolds, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, A.W. Smith, D. Steele, S.P. Swordy, J.A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V.V. Vassiliev, R. Wagner, S.P. Wakely, J.E. Ward, T.C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, R.J. White, D.A. Williams, S.A. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer

Observation of Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galaxy M87 above 250 GeV with VERITAS

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ, 679, 397, 2008b

The multiwavelength observation of the nearby radio galaxy M87 provides a unique opportunity to study in detail processes occurring in Active Galactic Nuclei from radio waves to TeV gamma-rays. Here we report the detection of gamma-ray emission above 250 GeV from M87 in spring 2007 with the VERITAS atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array and discuss its correlation with the X-ray emission. The gamma-ray emission is measured to be point-like with an intrinsic source radius less than 4.5 arcmin. The differential energy spectrum is fitted well by a power-law function: dPhi/dE=(7.4+-1.3_{stat}+-1.5_{sys})(E/TeV)^{-2.31+-0.17_{stat}+-0.2_{sys}} 10^{-9}m^{-2}s^{-1}TeV^{-1}. We show strong evidence for a year-scale correlation between the gamma-ray flux reported by TeV experiments and the X-ray emission measured by the ASM/RXTE observatory, and discuss the possible short-time-scale variability. These results imply that the gamma-ray emission from M87 is more likely associated with the core of the galaxy than with other bright X-ray features in the jet.

V.A. Acciari, M. Beilicke, G. Blaylock, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M.K. Daniel, C. Duke, T. Ergin, A.D. Falcone, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, G. Finnegan, P. Fortin, L.F. Fortson, K. Gibbs, G.H. Gillanders, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, S.B. Hughes, M.C. Hui, T.B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, M. Kertzman, D.B. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, K. Lee, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, R.A. Ong, D. Pandel, J.S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P.T. Reynolds, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, A.W. Smith, D. Steele, S.P. Swordy, A. Syson J.A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V.V. Vassiliev, S.P. Wakely, J.E. Ward, T.C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, R.J. White, D.A. Williams, S.A. Wissel, M.D. Wood, B. Zitzer

VERITAS Discovery of >200 GeV Gamma-Ray Emission from the IBL W Comae

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJL, 684, L73, 2008e

We report the detection of very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object W Comae (z=0.102) by VERITAS. The source was observed between January and April 2008. A strong outburst of gamma-ray emission was measured in the middle of March, lasting for only four days. The energy spectrum measured during the two highest flare nights is fit by a power-law and is found to be very steep, with a differential photon spectral index of Gamma = 3.81 +- 0.35_stat +- 0.34_syst. The integral photon flux above 200GeV during those two nights corresponds to roughly 9% of the flux from the Crab Nebula. Quasi-simultaneous Swift observations at X-ray energies were triggered by the VERITAS observations. The spectral energy distribution of the flare data can be described by synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) or external-Compton (EC) leptonic jet models, with the latter offering a more natural set of parameters to fit the data.

V. A. Acciari, E. Aliu, M. Beilicke, W. Benbow, M. Boettcher, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, V. Bugaev, Y. Butt, O. Celik, A. Cesarini, L. Ciupik, Y. C. K. Chow, P. Cogan, P. Colin, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, T. Ergin, A. D. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. Finnegan, P. Fortin, L. F. Fortson, A. Furniss, D. Gall, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, R. Guenette, G. Gyuk, D. Hanna, E. Hays, J. Holder, D. Horan, C. M. Hui, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, P. Kaaret, N. Karlsson, M. Kertzman, D. B. Kieda, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, K. Lee, G. Maier, A. McCann, M. McCutcheon, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, J. Niemiec, R. A. Ong, D. Pandel, J. S. Perkins, D. Petry, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, L. C. Reyes, P. T. Reynolds, E. Roache, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, J. A. Toner, V. V. Vassiliev, R. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, J. E. Ward, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein, R. J. White, D. A. Williams, S. A. Wissel, M. Wood, B. Zitzer

A Search for Dark Matter Annihilation with the Whipple 10m Telescope

Acciari, V.A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ, 678, 594, 2008f

We present observations of the dwarf galaxies Draco and Ursa Minor, the local group galaxies M32 and M33, and the globular cluster M15 conducted with the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope to search for the gamma-ray signature of self-annihilating weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) which may constitute astrophysical dark matter (DM). We review the motivations for selecting these sources based on their unique astrophysical environments and report the results of the data analysis which produced upper limits on excess rate of gamma rays for each source. We consider models for the DM distribution in each source based on the available observational constraints and discuss possible scenarios for the enhancement of the gamma-ray luminosity. Limits on the thermally averaged product of the total self-annihilation cross section and velocity of the WIMP, <\sigma v>, are derived using conservative estimates for the magnitude of the astrophysical contribution to the gamma-ray flux. Although these limits do not constrain predictions from the currently favored theoretical models of supersymmetry (SUSY), future observations with VERITAS will probe a larger region of the WIMP parameter phase space, <\sigma v> and WIMP particle mass (m_\chi).

M. Wood, G. Blaylock, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, K. L. Byrum, Y. C. K. Chow, W. Cui, I. de la Calle Perez, A. D. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, J. Grube, J. Hall, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. Horan, T. B. Humensky, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, A. Konopelko, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, H. J. Rose, G. H. Sembroski, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, A. Weinstein

Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 in March 2001: an Unprecedented View on the X-ray/TeV Correlated Variability

Fossati,G. et al. (with F. Krennrich), ApJ, 677, 906, 2008

We present a detailed analysis of week-long simultaneous observations of the blazar Mrk421 at 2-60 keV X-rays (RXTE) and TeV gamma-rays (Whipple and HEGRA) in 2001. The unprecedented quality of this dataset enables us to establish firmly the existence of the correlation between the TeV and X-ray luminosities, and to start unveiling some of its more detailed characteristics, in particular its energy dependence, and time variability. The source shows strong, highly correlated variations in X-ray and gamma-ray. No evidence of X-ray/gamma-ray interband lag is found on the full week dataset (<3 ks). However, a detailed analysis of the March 19 flare reveals that data are not consistent with the peak of the outburst in the 2-4 keV X-ray and TeV band being simultaneous. We estimate a 2.1+/-0.7 ks TeV lag. The amplitudes of the X-ray and gamma-ray variations are also highly correlated, and the TeV luminosity increases more than linearly w.r.t. the X-ray one. The strong correlation supports the standard model in which a unique electrons population produces the X-rays by synchrotron radiation and the gamma-ray component by inverse Compton scattering. However, for the individual best observed flares the gamma-ray flux scales approximately quadratically w.r.t. the X-ray flux, posing a serious challenge to emission models for TeV blazars. Rather special conditions and/or fine tuning of the temporal evolution of the physical parameters of the emission region are required in order to reproduce the quadratic correlation.

G. Fossati, J. H. Buckley, I. H. Bond, S. M. Bradbury, D. A. Carter-Lewis, Y. C. K. Chow, W. Cui, A. D. Falcone, J. P. Finley, J. A. Gaidos, J. Grube, J. Holder, D. Horan, D. Horns, M. M. Jordan, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, K. Lee, P. Moriarty, R. A. Ong, D. Petry, J. Quinn, G. H. Sembroski, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes

Constraints to Energy Spectra of Blazars based on Recent EBL limits from Galaxy Counts

Krennrich, F., Dwek, E. and Imran A., ApJL, 689, L93, 2008

We combine the recent estimate of the contribution of galaxies to the 3.6 micron intensity of the extragalactic background light (EBL) with optical and near-infrared (IR) galaxy counts to set new limits on intrinsic spectra of some of the most distant TeV blazars 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+30.4, and 1ES 1101-232, located at redshifts 0.1396, 0.182, and 0.186, respectively. The new lower limit on the 3.6 micron EBL intensity is significantly higher than the previous one set by the cumulative emission from resolved Spitzer galaxies. Correcting for attenuation by the revised EBL, we show that the differential spectral index of the intrinsic spectrum of the three blazars is 1.28 +- 0.20 or harder. These results present blazar emission models with the challenge of producing extremely hard intrinsic spectra in the sub-TeV to multi-TeV regime. These results also question the reliability of recently derived upper limits on the near-IR EBL intensity that are solely based on the assumption that intrinsic blazar spectra should not be harder than 1.5.

F. Krennrich, E. Dwek, A. Imran

Search for Primordial Black Holes with SGARFACE

Schroedter, M., Krennrich, F., LeBohec, S. et al., Astrop. Physics, 31, 102, 2008

The Short GAmma Ray Front Air Cherenkov Experiment (SGARFACE) uses the Whipple 10 m telescope to search for bursts of $\gamma$ rays. SGARFACE is sensitive to bursts with duration from a few ns to $\sim$20 $\mu$s and with $\gamma$-ray energy above 100 MeV. SGARFACE began operating in March 2003 and has collected 2.2 million events during an exposure time of 2267 hours. A search for bursts of $\gamma$ rays from explosions of primordial black holes (PBH) was carried out. A Hagedorn-type PBH explosion is predicted to be visible within 60 pc of Earth. Background events were caused by cosmic rays and by atmospheric phenomena and their rejection was accomplished to a large extent using the time-resolved images. No unambiguous detection of bursts of $\gamma$ rays could be made as the remaining background events mimic the expected shape and time development of bursts. Upper limits on the PBH explosion rate were derived from the SGARFACE data and are compared to previous and future experiments. We note that a future array of large wide-field air-Cherenkov telescopes equipped with a SGARFACE-like trigger would be able to operate background-free with a 20 to 30 times higher sensitivity for PBH explosions.

M. Schroedter, F. Krennrich, S. LeBohec, A. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, D. Horan, J. Kildea, A. W. Smith, J. Toner, T. C. Weekes

Production of Neutrinos and Secondary Electrons in Cosmic Sources

Huang, C.-Y. & Pohl, M., Astrop. Physics 29, 282, 2008

We study the individual contribution to secondary lepton production in hadronic interactions of cosmic rays (CRs) including resonances and heavier secondaries. For this purpose we use the same ethodology discussed earlier \cite{Huang07}, namely the Monte Carlo particle collision code DPMJET3.04 to determine the multiplicity spectra of various secondary particles with leptons as the final decay states, that result from inelastic collisions of cosmic-ray protons and Helium nuclei with the interstellar medium of standard composition. By combining the simulation results with parametric models for secondary particle (with resonances included) for incident cosmic-ray energies below a few GeV, where DPMJET appears unreliable, we thus derive production matrices for all stable secondary particles in cosmic-ray interactions with energies up to about 10 PeV. We apply the production matrices to calculate the radio synchrotron radiation of secondary electrons in a young shell-type SNR, RX J1713.7-3946, which is a measure of the age, the spectral index of hadronic cosmic rays, and most importantly the magnetic field strength. We find that the multi-mG fields recently invoked to explain the X-ray flux variations are unlikely to extend over a large fraction of the radio-emitting region, otherwise the spectrum of hadronic cosmic rays in the energy window 0.1-100 GeV must be unusually hard. We also use the production matrices to calculate the muon event rate in an IceCube-like detector that are induced by muon neutrinos from high-energy $\gamma$-ray sources such as RX J1713.7-3946, Vela Jr. and MGRO J2019+37. At muon energies of a few TeV, or in other word, about 10 TeV neutrino energy, an accumulation of data over about five to ten years would allow testing the hadronic origin of TeV $\gamma$-rays.

C.-Y. Huang, M. Pohl

Production of Magnetic Turbulence by Cosmic Rays Drifting Upstream of Supernova Remnant Shocks

Niemiec, J., Pohl, M., Stroman, T. & Nishikawa, K.I., ApJ 683, 1174, 2008

We present results of 2D and 3D PIC simulations of magnetic turbulence production by isotropic cosmic-ray ions drifting upstream of SNR shocks. The studies aim at testing recent predictions of a strong amplification of short wavelength magnetic field and at studying the evolution of the magnetic turbulence and its backreaction on cosmic rays. We observe that an oblique filamentary mode grows more rapidly than the non-resonant parallel modes found in analytical theory, and the growth rate of the field perturbations is much slower than is estimated for the parallel plane-wave mode, possibly because in our simulations we cannot maintain omega << Omega_i, the ion gyrofrequency, to the degree required for the plane-wave mode to emerge. The evolved oblique filamentary mode was also observed in MHD simulations to dominate in the nonlinear phase. We thus confirm the generation of the turbulent magnetic field due to the drift of cosmic-ray ions in the upstream plasma, but as our main result find that the amplitude of the turbulence saturates at about dB/B~1. The backreaction of the turbulence on the particles leads to an alignment of the bulk-flow velocities of the cosmic rays and the background medium, which is an essential characteristic of cosmic-ray modified shocks. It accounts for the saturation of the instability at moderate field amplitudes. Previously published MHD simulations have assumed a constant cosmic-ray current and no energy or momentum flux in the cosmic rays, which excludes a backreaction of the generated magnetic field on cosmic rays, and thus the saturation of the field amplitude is artificially suppressed. This may explain the continued growth of the magnetic field in the MHD simulations. A strong magnetic field amplification to amplitudes dB >> B0 has not been demonstrated yet.

Jacek Niemiec, Martin Pohl, Thomas Stroman and Ken-Ichi Nishikawa

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2007
 

The Whipple Observatory 10-meter gamma-ray telescope, 1997-2006

Kildea, J., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), Astrop. Phys., in press, 2007

Details are presented of the Whipple Observatory's 10 m atmospheric Cherenkov telescope and camera, as it evolved during the period 1997 until 2006. The design of the telescope and camera's optical and electronic systems is discussed together with a detailed description of the four-stage GRANITE (Gamma-RAy New Imaging TElescope) upgrade program, undertaken during the same time period. The objective of the upgrade was to improve the telescope's sensitivity for the detection of very-high-energy gamma-rays. Results from the program are provided and are briefly discussed in the context of the design of VERITAS. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

J. Kildea, R.W. Atkins, H.M. Badran, G. Blaylock, I.H. Bond, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, D.A. Carter-Lewis, O. Celik, Y.C.K. Chow, W. Cui, P. Cogan, M.K. Daniel, I. de la Calle Perez, C. Dowdall, C. Duke, A.D. Falcone, D.J. Fegan, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, L.F. Fortson, D. Gall, G.H. Gillanders, J. Grube, K.J. Gutierrez, J. Hall, T.A. Hall, J. Holder, D. Horan, S.B. Hughes, M. Jordan, I. Jung, G.E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, J. Knapp, A. Konopelko, K. Kosack, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, J. Lloyd-Evans, J. Millis, P. Moriarty, T. Nagai, P.A. Ogden, R.A. Ong, J.S. Perkins, D. Petry, F. Pizlo, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, M. Quinn, P.F. Rebillot, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, A.W. Smith, A. Syson, J.A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V.V. Vassiliev, S.P. Wakely, T.C. Weekes and R.J. White

Observations of the Unidentified TeV Gamma-Ray Source TeV J2032+4130 with the Whipple Observatory 10 m Telescope

Konopelko, A., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), ApJ 658, 1062, 2007

We report on observations of the sky region around the unidentified TeV gamma-ray source TeV J2032+4130 carried out with the Whipple Observatory 10 m atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for a total of 65.5 hrs between 2003 and 2005. The standard two-dimensional analysis developed by the Whipple collaboration for a stand-alone telescope reveals an excess in the field of view at a pre-trials significance level of 6.1 standard deviations. The measured position of this excess is alpha(2000) =20 h 32 m 27 s, delta(2000) = 41 deg 39 min 17 s. The estimated integral flux for this gamma-ray source is about 8% of the Crab-Nebula flux. The data are consistent with a point-like source. Here we present a detailed description of the standard two-dimensional analysis technique used for the analysis of data taken with the Whipple Observatory 10 m telescope and the results for the TeV J2032+4130 campaign. We include a short discussion of the physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the observed gamma-ray emission, based on possible association with known astrophysical objects, in particular Cygnus OB2.

A. Konopelko, R. W. Atkins, G. Blaylock, J. H. Buckley, Y. Butt, D. A. Carter-Lewis, O. Celik, P. Cogan, Y. C. K. Chow, W. Cui, C. Dowdall, T. Ergin, A. D. Falcone, D. J. Fegan, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, G. H. Gillanders, K. J. Gutierrez, J. Hall, D. Hanna, D. Horan, S. B. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, A. Imran, I. Jung, P. Kaaret, G. E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, K. Kosack, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, J. S. Perkins, M. Pohl, K. Ragan, P. T. Reynolds, H. J. Rose, G. H. Sembroski, M. Schroedter, A. W. Smith, D. Steele, A. Syson, S. P Swordy, J. A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, R. J. White, D. A. Williams, B. Zitzer

Gamma-Rays Produced in Cosmic-Ray Interactions and the TeV-band Spectrum of RX J1713-3946

Huang, C.-Y., Park, S.-E., Pohl, M., Daniels, C.D., Astrop. Phys. 27, 429, 2007

In this work we study the individual contribution to diffuse $\gamma$-ray emission from the secondary products in hadronic interactions generated by cosmic rays (CRs), in addition to the contribution of $\pi^0$ decay via the decay mode $\pi^0 \to 2\gamma$. For that purpose we employ the Monte Carlo particle collision code DPMJET3.04 to determine the multiplicity spectra of various secondary particles with $\gamma$'s as the final decay state, that result from inelastic collisions between cosmic-ray protons and Helium nuclei and the interstellar medium with standard composition. We thus derive an easy-to-use $\gamma$-ray production matrix for cosmic ray up to about 10 PeV, that can be used to interpret the $\gamma$-ray spectra of diffuse galactic emission and supernova remnants (SNR). We apply the $\gamma$-ray production matrix to the GeV excess in diffuse galactic $\gamma$-rays that was seen with EGRET. Although the non-$\pi^0$ contributions to the total emission have a different spectrum than the $\pi^0$-decay component, they are insufficient to explain the GeV excess. We also test the hypothesis that the TeV-band $\gamma$-ray emission of the shell-type SNR RX J1713-3946, that was observed with HESS, is caused by shock-accelerated hadronic cosmic rays. This scenario implies a very high efficacy of particle acceleration, so the particle spectrum is expected to continuously harden toward high energies on account of cosmic-ray modification of the shock. Using the $\chi^2$ statistic we find that a continuously softening spectrum is strongly preferred, in contrast to expectations. A hardening spectrum has about 1% probability to explain the HESS data, but then only if a hard cut-off at 50-100 TeV is imposed on the particle spectrum.

C.-Y. Huang, S.-E. Park, M. Pohl, C. D. Daniels

Very High Energy Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst Locations with the Whipple Telescope

Horan, D., et al. (with F. Krennrich), ApJ, 655, 396, 2007

Gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations at very high energies (VHE, E > 100 GeV) can impose tight constraints on some GRB emission models. Many GRB afterglow models predict a VHE component similar to that seen in blazars and plerions, in which the GRB spectral energy distribution has a double-peaked shape extending into the VHE regime. VHE emission coincident with delayed X-ray flare emission has also been predicted. GRB follow-up observations have had high priority in the observing program at the Whipple 10m Gamma-ray Telescope and GRBs will continue to be high priority targets as the next generation observatory, VERITAS, comes on-line. Upper limits on the VHE emission, at late times (>~4 hours), from seven GRBs observed with the Whipple Telescope are reported here.

D. Horan, R. W. Atkins, H. M. Badran, G. Blaylock, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, K. L. Byrum, O. Celik, Y. C. K. Chow, P. Cogan, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, I. de la Calle Perez, C. Dowdall, A. D. Falcone, D. J. Fegan, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, L. F. Fortson, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, K. J. Gutierrez, J. Hall, D. Hanna, J. Holder, S. B. Hughes, T. B. Humensky, G. E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, P. Moriarty, T. Nagai, R. A. Ong, J. S. Perkins, D. Petry, J. Quinn, M. Quinn, K. Ragan, P. T. Reynolds, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, J. A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V. V. Vassiliev, R. G. Wagner, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, R. J. White, D. A. Williams

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2006
 

A new search for primordial black hole evaporations using the Whipple gamma-ray telescope

Linton, E.T., et al. (with M. Pohl), J. Cosmol. Astrop. Phys. 01(2006), 13, 2006

Stephen Hawking's prediction that black holes should radiate like black bodies has several important consequences, including the possibility of the detection of small (~1015 g) black holes created in the very early universe. The detection of such primordial black holes (PBHs) would be an important discovery, not only confirming Hawking's theory, but also providing valuable insights into the history of the early universe. A search through 5.5 years of archival data from the Whipple Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescope is made for TeV gamma-ray bursts on 1, 3, and 5 s timescales. On the basis of a null result from this direct search for PBH evaporations, an upper limit of 1.08 × 106 pc-3 yr-1 (99% CL) is set on the PBH evaporation rate in the local region of the galaxy, assuming the Standard Model of particle physics. This is more than a factor of two better than the previous limit at this energy range and includes longer timescales than have previously been explored. Comparison of this result with previous limits on the fraction of the critical density comprised by PBHs, Ωpbh, depends strongly on assumptions made about PBH clustering; in models predicting strong PBH clustering, the limit in this work could be as many as ten orders of magnitude more stringently than those set by diffuse MeV gamma-ray observations.

AUTHORS_LONG

Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar Mrk 421 in December 2002 and January 2003

Rebillot, P. F., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), Aller, M., Aller, H., Boltwood, P., Jung, I., Kranich, D., Sillanpää, A., Sadun, A., ApJ 641, 740, 2006

We report on a multiwavelength campaign on the TeV gamma-ray blazar Markarian (Mrk) 421 performed during December 2002 and January 2003. These target of opportunity observations were initiated by the detection of X-ray and TeV gamma-ray flares with the All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the 10 m Whipple gamma-ray telescope.The campaign included observational coverage in the radio (University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory), optical (Boltwood, La Palma KVA 0.6m, WIYN 0.9m), X-ray (RXTE pointed telescopes), and TeV gamma-ray (Whipple and HEGRA) bands. At TeV energies, the observations revealed several flares at intermediate flux levels, peaking between 1 and 1.5 times the flux from the Crab Nebula. While the time averaged spectrum can be fitted with a single power law of photon index Gamma =2.8, we find some evidence for spectral variability. Confirming earlier results, the campaign reveals a rather loose correlation between the X-ray and TeV gamma-ray fluxes. In one case, a very strong X-ray flare is not accompanied by a comparable TeV gamma-ray flare. Although the source flux was variable in the optical and radio bands, the sparse sampling of the optical and radio light curves does not allow us to study the correlation properties in detail. We present a simple analysis of the data with a synchrotron-self Compton model, emphasizing that models with very high Doppler factors and low magnetic fields can describe the data.

P. Rebillot, for the VERITAS Collaboration, M. Aller, H. Aller, P. Boltwood, I. Jung, D. Kranich, A. Sillanpaa, A. Sadun

TeV Gamma-Ray Observations of the Perseus and Abell 2029 Galaxy Clusters

J. S. Perkins et al. (with F. Krennrich and M. Pohl)

Galaxy clusters might be sources of TeV gamma rays emitted by high-energy protons and electrons accelerated by large scale structure formation shocks, galactic winds, or active galactic nuclei. Furthermore, gamma rays may be produced in dark matter particle annihilation processes at the cluster cores. We report on observations of the galaxy clusters Perseus and Abell 2029 using the 10 m Whipple Cherenkov telescope during the 2003-2004 and 2004-2005 observing seasons. We apply a two-dimensional analysis technique to scrutinize the clusters for TeV emission. In this paper we first determine flux upper limits on TeV gamma-ray emission from point sources within the clusters. Second, we derive upper limits on the extended cluster emission. We subsequently compare the flux upper limits with EGRET upper limits at 100 MeV and theoretical models. Assuming that the gamma-ray surface brightness profile mimics that of the thermal X-ray emission and that the spectrum of cluster cosmic rays extends all the way from thermal energies to multi-TeV energies with a differential spectral index of -2.1, our results imply that the cosmic ray proton energy density is less than 7.9% of the thermal energy density for the Perseus cluster.

J. S. Perkins, H. M. Badran, G. Blaylock, S. M. Bradbury, P. Cogan, Y. C. K. Chow, W. Cui, M. K. Daniel, A. D. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, P. Fortin, L. F. Fortson, G. H. Gillanders, K. J. Gutierrez, J. Grube, J. Hall, D. Hanna, J. Holder, D. Horan, S. B. Hughes, G. E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, K. Kosack, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. LeBohec, G. Maier, P. Moriarty, R. A. Ong, M. Pohl, K. Ragan, P. F. Rebillot, G. H. Sembroski, D. Steele, S. P. Swordy, L. Valcarcel, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, D. A. Williams

Multiwavelength Observations of 1ES 1959+650, One Year After the Strong Outburst of 2002

K. Gutierrez et al. (with F. Krennrich and M. Pohl)

In April-May 2003, the blazar 1ES 1959+650 showed an increased level of X-ray activity. This prompted a multiwavelength observation campaign with the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, the Bordeaux Optical Observatory, and the University of Michigan Radio Astrophysical Observatory. We present the multiwavelength data taken from May 2, 2003 to June 7, 2003 and compare the source characteristics with those measured during observations taken during the years 2000 and 2002. The X-ray observations gave a data set with high signal-to-noise light curves and energy spectra; however, the gamma-ray observations did not reveal a major TeV gamma-ray flare. Furthermore, we find that the radio and optical fluxes do not show statistically significant deviations from those measured during the 2002 flaring periods. While the X-ray flux and X-ray photon index appear correlated during subsequent observations, the apparent correlation evolved significantly between the years 2000, 2002, and 2003. We discuss the implications of this finding for the mechanism that causes the flaring activity.

K. Gutierrez, H. M. Badran, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, O. Celik, Y. C. Chow, P. Cogan, W. Cui, M. Daniel, A. Falcone, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, J. Holder, D. Horan, S. B. Hughes, I. Jung, D. Kieda, K. Kosack, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M. J. Lang, S. Le Bohec, G. Maier, P. Moriarty, J. Perkins, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, P. F. Rebillot, H. J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G. H. Sembroski, S. P. Wakely, T. C. Weekes, R. J. White

The first VERITAS telescope

Holder, J., et al. (the VERITAS collaboration), Astrop. Phys. 25, 391, 2006

The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV $\gamma$-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

J. Holder, R.W. Atkins, H.M. Badran, G. Blaylock, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, K.L. Byrum, D.A. Carter-Lewis, O. Celik, Y.C.K. Chow, P. Cogan, W. Cui, M.K. Daniel, I. de la Calle Perez, C. Dowdall, P. Dowkontt, C. Duke, A.D. Falcone, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, P. Fortin, L.F. Fortson, K. Gibbs, G. Gillanders, O.J. Glidewell, J. Grube, K.J. Gutierrez, G. Gyuk, J. Hall, D. Hanna, E. Hays, D. Horan, S.B. Hughes, T.B. Humensky, A. Imran, I. Jung, P. Kaaret, G.E. Kenny, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, E. Linton, E.K. Little, G. Maier, H. Manseri, A. Milovanovic, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, P.A. Ogden, R.A. Ong, J.S. Perkins, F. Pizlo, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P.T. Reynolds, E.T. Roache, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, G. Sleege, D. Steele, S.P. Swordy, A. Syson, J.A. Toner, L. Valcarcel, V.V. Vassiliev, S.P. Wakely, T.C. Weekes, R.J. White, D.A. Williams, R. Wagner

Non-thermal high-energy emission from colliding winds of massive stars

Reimer, A., Pohl, M., Reimer, O., ApJ, 644, 1118, 2006

Colliding winds of massive star binary systems are considered as potential sites of non-thermal high-energy photon production. This is motivated merely by the detection of synchrotron radio emission from the expected colliding wind location. Here we investigate the properties of high-energy photon production in colliding winds of long-period WR+OB-systems. We found that in the dominating leptonic radiation process anisotropy and Klein-Nishina effects may yield spectral and variability signatures in the gamma-ray domain at or above the sensitivity of current or upcoming gamma-ray telescopes. Analytical formulae for the steady-state particle spectra are derived assuming diffusive particle acceleration out of a pool of thermal wind particles, and taking into account adiabatic and all relevant radiative losses. For the first time we include their advection/convection in the wind collision zone, and distinguish two regions within this extended region: the acceleration region where spatial diffusion is superior to convective/advective motion, and the convection region defined by the convection time shorter than the diffusion time scale. The calculation of the Inverse Compton radiation uses the full Klein-Nishina cross section, and takes into account the anisotropic nature of the scattering process. This leads to orbital flux variations by up to several orders of magnitude which may, however, be blurred by the geometry of the system. The calculations are applied to the typical WR+OB-systems WR 140 and WR 147 to yield predictions of their expected spectral and temporal characteristica and to evaluate chances to detect high-energy emission with the current and upcoming gamma-ray experiments.

A. Reimer, M. Pohl, O. Reimer

 

Channelled relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei: analytic solutions for the evolution of particle spectra

Schuster, C., Lerche, I., Schlickeiser, R., Pohl, M., A&A 452, 743, 2006

Context. Calculations of highly energetic neutrino and TeV Gamma-ray emission from relativistic jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are often based on a model that involves a collimated relativistic blast wave, in which the spectral evolution of energetic particles is determined by the interplay between the particle injection by sweep up of the interstellar medium, energy losses by radiation and diffusive escape. Aims. To date such models only have been solved numerically because of the highly non-linear nature of the time-dependent equations describing particle spectra and bulk energy loss. However it is difficult to see how parameters and groupings of parameters influence the resulting numerical solutions, except through intensive investigations of many numerical simulations. Therefore analytic solutions are particularly helpful. Methods. We provide exact mathematical solutions to a very broad class of AGN type models. By selecting different functional behaviors of parameter values, we cover a large compendium of possible situations. The comparison of the exact solutions with observational information can help to improve our understanding of the evolution of individual AGN. Exact solutions can also be used to provide controls on the appropropriateness and accuracy of numerical programs used to solve the equations. Results. We provide an analytical description of the evolution of proton spectra according to the pick-up model. We analyze the behavior of the particle spectra in the plasma frame. The solutions are determined by two competing processes: the deceleration of the jet plasmoid and particle cooling via radiation.

Schuster, C., Lerche, I., Schlickeiser, R., Pohl, M.

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2005

The Near Infrared Background: Interplanetary Dust Or Primordial Stars?

E. Dwek, G. Arendt and F. Krennrich, Astrophysical Journal, in press, (astro-ph/0508262), 2005

The intensity of the diffuse ~ 1 - 4 micron sky emission from which solar system and Galactic foregrounds have been subtracted is in excess of that expected from energy released by galaxies and stars that formed during the z < 5 redshift interval (Arendt & Dwek 2003, Matsumoto et al. 2005). The spectral signature of this excess near-infrared background light (NIRBL) component is almost identical to that of reflected sunlight from the interplanetary dust cloud, and could therefore be the result of the incomplete subtraction of this foreground emission component from the diffuse sky maps. Alternatively, this emission component could be extragalactic. Its spectral signature is consistent with that of redshifted continuum and recombination line emission from HII regions formed by the first generation of very massive stars. In this paper we analyze the implications of this spectral component for the formation rate of these Population III stars, the redshift interval during which they formed, the reionization of the universe and evolution of collapsed halo masses. We find that to reproduce the intensity and spectral shape of the NIRBL requires a peak star formation rate that is higher by about a factor of 4 to 10 compared to those derived from hierarchical models. Furthermore, an extragalactic origin for the NIRBL leads to physically unrealistic absorption-corrected spectra of distant TeV blazars. All these results suggest that Pop III stars contribute only a fraction of the NIRBL intensity with zodiacal light, star forming galaxies, and/or non-nuclear sources giving rise to the remaining fraction.

Eli Dwek, Richard G. Arendt, Frank Krennrich

Is There an Imprint of Primordial Stars in the Tev Gamma-Ray Spectrum of Blazars?

Dwek, F. Krennrich and G. Arendt, Astrophysical Journal, in press, (see astro-ph0508133), 2005

The 1 - 5 micron diffuse sky emission from which local foreground emission from the solar system and the Galaxy have been subtracted exceeds the brightness that can be attributed to normal star forming galaxies. The nature of this excess near-infrared background light (NIRBL) is still controversial. On one hand, it has been interpreted as a distinct spectral feature created by the redshifted emission from primordial (Population III) stars that have formed at redshifts > 8. On the other hand, the NIRBL spectrum is almost identical to that of the zodiacal cloud, raising the possibility that it is of local origin. Blazars can, in principle, offer a simple test for the nature and origin of the NIRBL. Very high energy gamma-ray photons emitted by these objects are attenuated on route to earth by photon-photon interactions with the extragalactic background light (EBL). This paper examines whether the extragalactic nature of the NIRBL can be determined from the analysis of the TeV spectra of blazars.

Eli Dwek, Frank Krennrich, Richard G. Arendt

A Multiwavelength View of the TeV Blazar Markarian 421: Correlated Variability, Flaring and Spectral Evolution

M. Blazejowski et al. (with F. Krennrich, D.A. Lewis, T. Nagai)

We report results from a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign on Mrk 421 over the period of 2003-2004. The source was observed simultaneously at TeV and X-ray energies, with supporting observations frequently carried out at optical and radio wavelengths. The large amount of simultaneous data has allowed us to examine the variability of Mrk 421 in detail. The variabilities are generally correlated between the X-ray and gamma-ray bands, although the correlation appears to be fairly loose. The light curves show the presence of flares with varying amplitudes on a wide range of timescales both at X-ray and TeV energies. Of particular interest is the presence of TeV flares that have no coincident counterparts at longer wavelengths, because the phenomenon seems difficult to understand in the context of the proposed emission models for TeV blazars. We have also found that the TeV flux reached its peak days before the X-ray flux during a giant flare in 2004. Such a difference in the development of the flare presents a further challenge to the emission models. Mrk 421 varied much less at optical and radio wavelengths. Surprisingly, the normalized variability amplitude in optical seems to be comparable to that in radio, perhaps suggesting the presence of different populations of emitting electrons in the jet. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of Mrk 421 is seen to vary with flux, with the two characteristic peaks moving toward higher energies at higher fluxes. We have failed to fit the measured SEDs with a one-zone SSC model; introducing additional zones greatly improves the fits. We have derived constraints on the physical properties of the X-ray/gamma-ray flaring regions from the observed variability (and SED) of the source. The implications of the results are discussed.

M. Blazejowski, I. C. De La Calle Perez, I. H. Bond, P. J. Boyle, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, D. A. Carter-Lewis, W. Cui, , M. Daniel , C. Dowdall, C. Duke, I. de la Calle Perez, A. Falcone, D. J. Fegan, S. J. Fegan, J. P. Finley, L. Fortson, J. A. Gaidos, K. Gibbs, S. Gammell, J. Hall, T. A. Hall, A. M. Hillas, J. Holder, D. Horan, M. Jordan, M. Kertzman, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, S. LeBohec, E. T. Linton, J. Lloyd-Evans, P. Moriarty, D. Müller, T. N. Nagai, R. Ong, M. Page, R. Pallassini, D. Petry, B. Power-Mooney, J. Quinn, P. Rebillot, P. T. Reynolds, H. J. Rose, G. H. Sembroski, S. P. Swordy, V. V. Vassiliev, S. P. Wakely, G. Walker, and T. C. Weekes

The Energy Spectrum of the Blazar 1ES2344+514

M. Schroedter et al. Astrophysical Journal, in press, 2005

The BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1ES 2344+514 (1ES 2344), at a redshift of 0.044, was discovered as a source of very high energy (VHE) gamma rays by the Whipple Collaboration in 1995 \citep{2344Catanese98}. This detection was recently confirmed by the HEGRA Collaboration \citep{2344Hegra03}. As is typical for high-frequency peaked blazars, the VHE gamma-ray emission is highly variable. On the night of 20 December, 1995, a gamma-ray flare of 5.3-sigma significance was detected, the brightest outburst from this object to-date. The emission region is compatible with a point source. The spectrum between 0.8 TeV and 12.6 TeV can be described by a power law $\frac{\ud^3 N}{\ud E \ud A \ud t}=(5.1\pm1.0_{st}\pm1.2_{sy})\times10^{-7} (E/ \mathrm{TeV})^{-2.54 \pm0.17_{st}\pm0.07_{sy}} \mathrm{\frac{1}{TeV m^2 s}}$. Comparing the spectral index with that of the other five confirmed TeV blazars, the spectrum of 1ES 2344 is similar to 1ES 1959+650, located at almost the same distance. The spectrum of 1ES 2344 is steeper than the brightest flare spectra of Markarian 421 (Mrk~421) and Markarian 501 (Mrk~501), both located at a distance about 2/3 that of 1ES 2344, and harder than the spectra of PKS 2155-304 and H~1426+428, which are located almost three times as far. This trend is consistent with attenuation caused by the infrared extragalactic background radiation.

M. Schroedter, H. M. Badran, J. H. Buckley, J. Bussons Gordo, D. A. Carter-Lewis, C. Duke, D. J. Fegan, S. F. Fegan, J. P. Finley, G. H. Gillanders, J. Grube, D. Horan, G. E. Kenny, M. Kertzman, K. Kosack, F. Krennrich, D. B. Kieda, J. Kildea, M. J. Lang, Kuen Lee, P. Moriarty, J. Quinn, M. Quinn, B. Power-Mooney, G. H. Sembroski, S. P. Wakely, V. V. Vassiliev, T. C. Weekes, and J. Zweerink

Spectrum of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from the Blazar 1ES1959+650 During Flaring Activity in 2002

M. Daniel et al. (with F. Krennrich, D. A. Lewis, T. Nagai, M. Schroedter, A. Imran, M. Pohl) Astrophysical Journal, 621, 181, 2005

The blazar 1ES 1959+650 was observed in a flaring state with the Whipple 10 m Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope during May of 2002. A spectral analysis has been carried out on the data from that time period and the resulting very high energy gamma-ray spectrum ($E \geq 316$ GeV) can be well fit by a power-law of differential spectral index \alpha = 2.78 +/- 0.12_{stat.} +/- 0.21_{sys.}. On June 4th 2002, the source flared dramatically in the gamma-ray range without any coincident increase in the X-ray emission, providing the first unambiguous example of an `orphan' gamma-ray flare from a blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum for these data can also be described by a simple power-law fit with \alpha = 2.82 +/- 0.15_{stat.} +/- 0.30_{sys.}. There is no compelling evidence for spectral variability, or for any cut-off to the spectrum.

J. Holder, R.W. Atkins, H.M. Badran, G. Blaylock, S.M. Bradbury, J.H. Buckley, K.L. Byrum, D.A. Carter-Lewis, O. Celik, Y.C.K. Chow, P. Cogan, W. Cui, M.K. Daniel, I. de la Calle Perez, C. Dowdall, P. Dowkontt, C. Duke, A.D. Falcone, S.J. Fegan, J.P. Finley, P. Fortin, L.F. Fortson, K. Gibbs, G. Gillanders, O.J. Glidewell, J. Grube, K.J. Gutierrez, G. Gyuk, J. Hall, D. Hanna, E. Hays, D. Horan, S.B. Hughes, T.B. Humensky, A. Imran, I. Jung, P. Kaaret, G.E. Kenny, D. Kieda, J. Kildea, J. Knapp, H. Krawczynski, F. Krennrich, M.J. Lang, S. LeBohec, E. Linton, E.K. Little, G. Maier, H. Manseri, A. Milovanovic, P. Moriarty, R. Mukherjee, P.A. Ogden, R.A. Ong, J.S. Perkins, F. Pizlo, M. Pohl, J. Quinn, K. Ragan, P.T. Reynolds, E.T. Roache, H.J. Rose, M. Schroedter, G.H. Sembroski, G. Sleege, D. Steele

SGARFACE: A Novel Detectors For Gamma Ray Bursts

S. LeBohec, F. Krennrich & G. Sleege, Astroparticle Physics, 23, 238-248, 2005

The Short GAmma Ray Front Air Cherenkov Experiment (SGARFACE) is operated at the Whipple Observatory utilizing the Whipple 10m gamma-ray telescope. SGARFACE is sensitive to gamma-ray bursts of more than 100MeV with durations from 100ns to 35us and provides a fluence sensitivity as low as 0.8 gamma-rays per m^2 above 200MeV (0.05 gamma-rays per m^2 above 2GeV) and allows to record the burst time structure.

S. LeBohec, F. Krennrich & G. Sleege

Simultaneous Constraints on the Spectrum of the Extragalactic Background Light and the Intrinsic Tev Spectra of Mrk 421, Mrk 501, and H1426+428

E. Dwek and F. Krennrich, Astrophysical Journal, 618, 657, 2005.

Very high energy (~ TeV) $\gamma$-rays from blazars are attenuated by photons from the extragalactic background light (EBL). Observations of blazars can therefore provide an ideal opportunity for determining the EBL intensity if their intrinsic spectrum is known. Conversely, knowledge of the EBL intensity can be used to determine the intrinsic blazar spectrum. Unfortunately, neither the EBL intensity nor the intrinsic blazar spectrum is known with high enough precision to accurately derive one quantity from the other. In this paper we use the most recent data on the EBL to construct twelve different realizations representing all possible permutations between EBL limits and the detections in the different wavelength regions. We use these realizations to explore the effects of the EBL on the inferred spectra of blazars. In particular, we show that the frequently cited "IR background-TeV gamma-ray crisis" does not exist, and derive the intrinsic spectra and peak energies of the blazars Mrk 421, 501 and H1426+428 for EBL realizations that give rise to physically viable intrinsic blazar spectra. We also show that the intrinsic spectrum of Mrk~421 during a period of intense flaring activity has a peak energy that seems to shift to higher energies at higher flux states. Finally, we also explore the effect of the uncertainties in the absolute calibration of the gamma-ray energies on derived TeV opacities and the intrinsic blazar spectra.

E. Dwek and F. Krennrich

A Survey of Unidentified EGRET Sources at Very High Energies

S. J. Fegan et al. (with F. Krennrich, D. A. Carter-Lewis,T. Nagai, M. Schroedter) Astrophysical Journal, 624, 638, 2005

Observations of unidentified EGRET sources were made with the Whipple 10m imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope between Fall 1999 and Spring 2001. During this period, a high resolution 490 pixel camera with 4 degree field of view was present on the telescope. Characterization of the off-axis response of this instrument was done using observations of the Crab Nebula. No significant emission was detected from the eight unidentified EGRET sources observed and upper limits are presented as a function of position.

S. J. Fegan, The VERITAS collaboration

Group Publications in Referred Journals: 2004

A Multiwavelength View of the TeV Blazar Markarian 421: Correlated Variability, Flaring and Spectral Evolution

M. Blazejowski, I. C. De La Calle Perez, I. H. Bond, P. J. Boyle, S. M. Bradbury, J. H. Buckley, D. A. Carter-Lewis, W. Cui, , M. Daniel , C. Dowdall, C. Duke, I. de la Calle Perez